Definition & Characteristics of CULTURE – تعريف التراث ومميزاته


تعريف التراث ومميزاته   

الدكتور حسن يحيى

Definition  &  Characteristics of  CULTURE

Hasan Yahya, Ph.ds,

Former Professor of Sociology

???????????????????????????????Initially, culture is defined as: the shared patterns of behaviors and interactions, cognitive constructs, and affective understanding that are learned through a process of socialization. These shared patterns identify the members of a culture group while also distinguishing those of another group.”

The literature in sociology and anthropology show other definitions as well.   “Most social scientists today view culture as consisting primarily of the symbolic, ideational, and intangible aspects of human societies. The essence of a culture is not its artifacts, tools, or other tangible cultural elements but how the members of the group interpret, use, and perceive them. It is the values, symbols, interpretations, and perspectives that distinguish one people from another in modernized societies; it is not material objects and other tangible aspects of human societies. People within a culture usually interpret the meaning of symbols, artifacts, and behaviors in the same or in similar ways.”

In Anthropology: It  ” …… consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i.e. historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products of action, and on the other as conditioning elements of further action.” (Kroeber, & Kluckhohn 1952)

In Sociology: Parsons defines culture “…..consists in those patterns relative to behavior and the products of human action which may be inherited, that is, passed on from generation to generation independently of the biological genes” (Parsons 1949: 8).

In Education: “Culture has been defined in a number of ways, but most simply, as the learned and shared behavior of a community of interacting human beings” (Useem & Useem 1963: 169).

In psychology: Damen defines culture as the “…. learned and shared human patterns or models for living; day- to-day living patterns. these patterns and models pervade all aspects of human social interaction. Culture is mankind’s primary adaptive mechanism” Damen 1987: 367).

Social scientists in general define it as: Banks,, Banks, & McGee (989) stated:

“Most social scientists today view culture as consisting primarily of the symbolic, ideational, and intangible aspects of human societies. The essence of a culture is not its artifacts, tools, or other tangible cultural elements but how the members of the group interpret, use, and perceive them. It is the values, symbols, interpretations, and perspectives that distinguish one people from another in modernized societies; it is not material objects and other tangible aspects of human societies. People within a culture usually interpret the meaning of symbols, artifacts, and behaviors in the same or in similar ways.” (Hofstede 1984)

Linton defines it as “A culture is a configuration of learned behaviors and results of behavior whose component elements are shared and transmitted by the members of a particular society” (Linton 1945: 32).

Kluckhohn, & Kelly define culture  by meaning  “……. all those historically created designs for living, explicit and implicit, rational, irrational, and nonrational, which exist at any given time as potential guides for the behavior of men.” (Kluckhohn, & Kelly 1945)

“Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one category of people from another.” (Hofstede 1984: 51).

I define culture as ” the shared and learned  ways day-to-day living patterns, or models of human patterns. Which pervade all aspects of social interaction. In other words, Culture is humankind’s primary adaptive collective behavioral  mechanism” (Yahya 1990)

image044In summary, Culture is the shared knowledge, way of life models and  schemes created by a set of people geographically and historically  formulating perception, interpreting, behaving, expressing, and responding to the social realities around them.

Characteristics of Culture   may be summarized in the following:

 1)      .  It is a social. Product develops by many people interacting in a group. No man is an island. Culture, therefore,  is adaptive to the group.

2)      Culture gratifies human biological needs such as food, shelter, clothing, protection, love,  marriage, and security needs.

3)      Culture is learned, acquired and shared generally by a population.

4)      Culture is ideational uses ideas and symbols has meanings related to his social and natural environment as well as experiences.

5)      Culture is cumulative. People are able to retain certain features of their culture that are significant to learn, share and transmit.

6)      Finally, culture  is passed on to succeeding generations primarily through Language/ Symbols and Communication. Religion symbols is a good example here, for example, Christian,  Jewish,  Hindu,  Muslim, etc., (777 words) www.arabamericanencyclopedia.com

References

Banks, J.A., Banks, & McGee, C. A. (1989). Multicultural education. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Damen, L. (1987). Culture Learning: The Fifth Dimension on the Language Classroom. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Hofstede, G. (1984). National cultures and corporate cultures. In L.A. Samovar & R.E. Porter (Eds.), Communication Between Cultures. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Linton, R. (1945). The Cultural Background of Personality. New York.

Kluckhohn, C., & Kelly, W.H. (1945). The concept of culture. In R. Linton (Ed.). The Science of Man in the World Culture. New York. (pp. 78-105).

Kroeber, A.L., & Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture: A critical review of concepts and definitions. Harvard University Peabody Museum of American Archeology and Ethnology Papers 47.

Parson, T. (1949). Essays in Sociological Theory. Glencoe, IL.

Useem, J., & Useem, R. (1963). Human Organizations, 22(3).

Yahya, Hasan A. Ilm al Ijtima al Tatbeeqi, Jerusalem Press-USA,1990.

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يرجى التكرم بعد قراءة هذه المقالة إذا وافقت هوى في نفوسكم أن تخبروا أصدقاءكم عن طريق الموبايلات أو وسائل الإتصال الإلكترونية الأخرى لتعم الفائدة من المعلومات فيها، وشكرا لكم.

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Special Thanks to Female and male Principles and teachers in USA, Great Britain,and EU for selecting some of the author’s publications (55 stories 4 Kids , Qandil Umm Hashim, Hay bin Yaqzan-Ibn Tufail, Shu’ara al Arab: Zuhayr bin Abi Salma and Ibn Zaydun: Andalus Poet) bringing up our children in Diaspora. I appreciate. Thank you!

DSC01061Hasan Yahya is an Arab-Palestinian-Jordanian-American theorist, sociologist, philosopher, writer and historian. He’s a former professor of Comparative Sociology and Educational Administration at Michigan State University, Lansing Community and Jackson Community Colleges. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the International Humanities Studies (IHS) Journal (Jerusalem-Based) and several other USA, journals. Dr. Yahya is the originator of Arab American Encyclopedia and Ihyaa al Turath al Arabi fil Mahjar-USA. His (330 plus) publication may be observed on Amazon and Kindle. To reach the writer: Email: askdryahya@yahoo.com

Dr. Yahya Credentials: Ph.D in Comparative Socioloy 1991, Michigan State University. Ph.D in Educational Administration, Michigan State Univ.(1988). M.A Psychology of Schools Conflict Management, Michigan State Univ. 1983. Diploma M.A, Oriental Studies, St. Joseph Univ. Beirut, Lebanon. (1982) B.A Modern and Classical Arab Literature, (1976). Life Achievements: Publishing 330 plus Books on Amazon and 1000 plus articles on various topics.

You may like and follow the writer at:

Twitter  Facebook  Google  Videos and Books  UTube & Amazon

Thank you All….God Bless

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مقدمة ابن خلدون قديم الدكتور حسن يحيى

About Arab American Encyclopedia-USA - Hasan Yahya

HASAN YAHYA was born at a small village called Majdal-YaFa (Majdal Sadiq) in Mandate Palestine (1944). He migrated as a refugee to Mes-ha, a village east of Kufr Qasim, west of Nablus (in the West Bank), then moved with his family to Zarka, 25 km north of Amman – Jordan. He finished the high school at Zarka Secondary School, 1963. He was appointed as a teacher in the same year. Studied Law first at Damascus University, then B.A from Lebanon University in Arabic literature and Eastern Cultures (1975). He moved to Kuwait. Where he got married in 1967. He was working at Kuwait Television, taught at bilingual School, and Kuwait University. In 1982, Hasan left to the United States to continue his education at Michigan State University. He got the Master Degree in 1983, the Ph.D degree in 1988 in Education (Psychology of Administration ). In 1991, He obtained his post degree in Social research, the result was a second Ph.D degree in Comparative sociology-Social Psychology. He was the only Arab student who enrolled ever to pursue two simultaneous Ph.D programs from Michigan State University and fulfill their requirements perfectly. Professor Yahya employment history began as a supervisor of a joint project to rehabilitate Youth (inmates out of prison) by Michigan State University and Intermediate School Districts. Worked also as a Teacher Assistant and lecturer in the same university. He was offered a position at Lansing Community College as well as Jackson Community College where he was assistant professor, then associate professor, then full professor (1991-2006). He taught Sociology, psychology, education, criminology and research methods. He supervised 19 Master and Ph.D candidates on various personal, economic psychological and social development topics. Professor Yahya published Hundreds (1000 Plus on this site) of articles and research reports in local, regional, and international journals. His interest covers local, regional and global conflicts. He also authored, translated, edited and published over 280 plus books in several languages, in almost all fields especial education, sociology and psychology. These books can be found on Amazon and Kindle. He also, was a visiting professor at Eastern Michigan University to give Research Methods and Conflict Management courses. Prof. Yahya accepted an offer to join Zayed University Faculty Team in 1998, then he served as the Head of Education and Psychology Department at Ajman University of Science and Technology 2001-04. Dr. Yahya established several institutes in Diaspora, the Arab American Encyclopedia, Ihyaa al Turath al Arabi Project, (Revival of Arab Heritage in Diaspora.Recently he was nominated for honorary committee member for the Union of Arab and Muslim Writers in America. He was affiliated with sociological associations and was a member of the Association of Muslim Social Scientists (AMSS) at USA. Social Activities and Community Participation: Dr. Yahya was a national figure on Diversity and Islamic Issues in the United States, with special attention to Race Relations and Psychology of Assimilation (generations 1,2 &3). He was invited as a public speaker to many TV shows and interviews in many countries. His philosophy includes enhancing knowledge to appreciate the others, and to compromise with others in order to live peacefully with others. This philosophy was the backgrounds of his theory, called “ Theory C. of Conflict Management”. And developed later to a Science of Cultural Normalization under the title: “Crescentology. The results of such theory will lead to world peace depends on a global Knowledge, Understanding, appreciation, and Compromising (KUAC)” Recently Prof. Yahya started "Publish your book FREE Project", to serve young Arab Writers. Dr. Yahya accepted the offer to be the chief editor of the International Humanities Studies Journal -I-H-S-Jerusalem, since July 2014. (Revised Sept. 2014) ولد الدكتور حسن عبدالقادر يحيى في مجدل يابا من أعمال يافا – فلسطين عام 1944. تلقى علومه الابتدائية في مدرسة بديا الأميرية في الضفة الغربية أيام احتوائها ضمن المملكة الأدردنية الهاشمية وتخرج في جامعة بيروت حاملاً الإجازة في اللغة العربية وآدابها، ودبلوم التأهيل التربوي من كلية القديس يوسف بلبنان، ودبلوم الدراسات العليا (الماجستير) ودكتوراة في الإدارة التربوية من جامعة ولاية ميشيغان بالولايات المتحدة عام 1988، وشهادة الدكتوراه في علم الاجتماع المقارن من الجامعة نفسها عام 1991. عمل في التدريس والصحافة الأدبية. أديب وشاعر وقاص ، ,كما عمل في تلفزيون الكويت الرسمي كمعد ومنسق برامج ثم اتجه إلى الكتابة والتأليف في علوم كثيرة تخص علمي النفس والاجتماع والتنمية البشرية ، والتغير الاجتماعي والسكان وألف ونشر العديد من المقالات (1000 +) والكتب باللغتين العربية والإنجليزية (أكثر من 330 كتابا) ، منها ست مجموعات قصصية وست كتب للأطفال ، وأربع دواوين شعرية باللغتين أيضا. وعدد من كتب التراث في الشعر والأدب والأخلاق الإسلامية والتربية والأديان . وهو الآن أستاذ متقاعد في جامعة ولاية ميشيغان. . وكان عضوا سابقا في جمعية العلماء المسلمين في أمريكا . وجمعية علماء الاجتماع الأمريكية - ميشيغان، وهو مؤسس الموسوعة العربية الأمريكية في الولايات المتحدة ضمن مشروع إحياء التراث العربي في بلاد المهجرز كما تم ترشيحه مؤخرا ليكون عضو مجلس التحرير لمجلة الدراسات الإنسانية العالمية. وقد قبل أن يتسلم رئاسة تحريرها اعتبارا من نهاية يونيو 2014 His email: askdryahya@yahoo.com Thank you!
This entry was posted in albahaspace, Anthropology, Arab Affairs, Arab Cluture, Arab flags, Arab Literature, Arab Manifesto, Arab Personalilities, Arab Women Literature, Assimilation and change, Crescentology, Crime and deviance, Decision Making, Educational Psychology, Hasan Yahya حسن يحيى, Ibn Khaldun ابن خلدون،, Ikhwan al Safa, Sociology. Bookmark the permalink.

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