Globalization and the Muslim world – العولمة والعالم الإسلامي


Globalization and the Muslim world

Hasan Yahya, Professor of Sociology

العولمة والعالم الإسلامي للدكتور حسن يحيى

                      
Islam Finds Its Way Book Cover

Economists see The globalization of the world economy issue as one of the most powerful silent features of our age. Trade, investment, capital, services, ideas, and people, are all increasing in movement on a global scale. Rapid advances in transportation and communication technology have reduced the barriers posed by geography and distance.

Governments around the world have also facilitated economic globalization by embracing policies of openness and liberalization . The result is not only increasing interdependence between countries and regions, but the emergence of a complex and highly integrated system of trade, production, and finance.

Globalization is embedded in a wider and deeper political order-a liberal order created by the United States and its capitalist-democratic partners after WWII. This order was built on a set of practices, bargains and institutions that bind the great powers together and interlocking and binding security institutions that prevent the return to balance and strategic competition among these states. Globalization is only possible because it is embedded in this order. But more than this, binding security relations create a sort of “reverse mercantilism” that creates positive incentives for the democratic-capitalist security partners to trade and invest between them. Relative gains considerations are dampened and strategic incentives are added to more economic incentives as leading states attempt to compose their differences and concert their politics.

Globalization is a more powerful force shaping world political economy than regionalism. Rationalism is driven more by agendas of economic openness and integration than by exclusion and insularity. The impacts of globalization on inter-state relations are real and do make it more difficult or less attractive for states to pose relative gains or narrowly nationalistic policies. The character of trade interdependence and the working of global production networks confuse nationalist calculations which was not understood by the OIC. Furthermore, the rapid shifting character of contemporary technology-based economic change creates more rotation and segmentation of winners and losers in world politics. Where hinder losers to withdraw from the open world economy.

Finally, The major states today do not seem to understand the multiple elements that create and sustain global economic openness. The interconnection between global security order and economic globalization has not been appreciated. TheUnited Stateshas tended to emphasize the virtues of openness and deregulation-including capital markets-without paying enough attention to the domestic social institutions and international governance arrangements that are necessary to make openness work. The new debate should include domestic social institutions for the benefits of citizens which is getting worse and reflected in inter-state and regional violence The need is serious for a new international mechanisms is to be advised. The economic forces of change always run ahead of the ability of politics to manage or control those forces. This has never be true than today.

In terms of political foundations of globalization, it is rooted in two political orders after WWII, the “containment order” as a result of the Cold War. Built around superpower competition. Extended deterrence to contain ideological competition. The other order after 1990, took the shape to focus on building a new set of relations among the western democracies. This order was not directed at countering Soviet power and fear of communism , instead it was aimed at solving the problems of economic breakdown.

Before WWII, Germany and Japan each had built their states around the military domination of their respective geographical regions. Russiawas also a territorial imperial power unto itself. And Great   Britainhad the imperial preference system which was a threat to an open world economy. During the 1930s in the United States the debate among scholars and policy thinkers was about the implications for the United States of a world regional blocs .After WWII, a capitalist order took shape, capitalism would be organized internationally and not along national, regional , or imperial lines. As the United Statesfound that it would not be a great power and survive only in western hemisphere. Therefore it looked at trade and resources of the vast euro-Asian regions. {Including the Middle East]. They pushed the idea of capitalism to be organized on a global basis. Behind this world capitalist order was the idea of NATO, where a set of binding institutions that keep then exercise of power predictable and restrained. NATO, the US-Japan alliance, and a series of other bilateral security ties are at the center of this complex set of institutions that cut across the regions of the world to provide restraint and reassurances. The NATO alliance members security created insecurities in states of unequal power, this logic of “reverse Mercantilism” securities of the NATO alliance members tried to provide national security rationales for open market.

Taliban, Saudi Arabia and several Arab nations (Qater, Bahrain, UAE, Egypt, and Syria, provide services and support for NATO forces in the Gulf, and Pakistan provided services to NATO to occupy Afghanistan. None of the Muslim world leaders was smart enough to understand the implications of the defeat of the two Muslim countries. Or may be they understand, but play the blind game for quick gain. They did not think that the only side to benefit was Israel.

The SCO shanghai five and later six, including Russia and China, will add some countries to total ten nations in few years, But the Muslim nations willremain in between , sometimes leaning to the East, but most times leaning toward the West.

All these organizations carry the doubts about their innocence. In terms of their latent and manifest objectives they are different from their functions for many reasons including political, moral and ideological .

I am still optimistic and have the hope that Muslims will come to understand the real conditions of their decay and weaknesses. The future still ahead and we all are heading to it. If we remain static, future will hit us and make wake up to work before the future became yesterday. History remains our professor to understand past present and the future. (1002 words) www.askdryahya.com

*** From the author’s Book: . Islam: Finds Its Way ,  2010.

About Arab American Encyclopedia-USA - Hasan Yahya

HASAN YAHYA was born at a small village called Majdal-YaFa (Majdal Sadiq) in Mandate Palestine (1944). He migrated as a refugee to Mes-ha, a village east of Kufr Qasim, west of Nablus (in the West Bank), then moved with his family to Zarka, 25 km north of Amman – Jordan. He finished the high school at Zarka Secondary School, 1963. He was appointed as a teacher in the same year. Studied Law first at Damascus University, then B.A from Lebanon University in Arabic literature and Eastern Cultures (1975). He moved to Kuwait. Where he got married in 1967. He was working at Kuwait Television, taught at bilingual School, and Kuwait University. In 1982, Hasan left to the United States to continue his education at Michigan State University. He got the Master Degree in 1983, the Ph.D degree in 1988 in Education (Psychology of Administration ). In 1991, He obtained his post degree in Social research, the result was a second Ph.D degree in Comparative sociology-Social Psychology. He was the only Arab student who enrolled ever to pursue two simultaneous Ph.D programs from Michigan State University and fulfill their requirements perfectly. Professor Yahya employment history began as a supervisor of a joint project to rehabilitate Youth (inmates out of prison) by Michigan State University and Intermediate School Districts. Worked also as a Teacher Assistant and lecturer in the same university. He was offered a position at Lansing Community College as well as Jackson Community College where he was assistant professor, then associate professor, then full professor (1991-2006). He taught Sociology, psychology, education, criminology and research methods. He supervised 19 Master and Ph.D candidates on various personal, economic psychological and social development topics. Professor Yahya published Hundreds (1000 Plus on this site) of articles and research reports in local, regional, and international journals. His interest covers local, regional and global conflicts. He also authored, translated, edited and published over 280 plus books in several languages, in almost all fields especial education, sociology and psychology. These books can be found on Amazon and Kindle. He also, was a visiting professor at Eastern Michigan University to give Research Methods and Conflict Management courses. Prof. Yahya accepted an offer to join Zayed University Faculty Team in 1998, then he served as the Head of Education and Psychology Department at Ajman University of Science and Technology 2001-04. Dr. Yahya established several institutes in Diaspora, the Arab American Encyclopedia, Ihyaa al Turath al Arabi Project, (Revival of Arab Heritage in Diaspora.Recently he was nominated for honorary committee member for the Union of Arab and Muslim Writers in America. He was affiliated with sociological associations and was a member of the Association of Muslim Social Scientists (AMSS) at USA. Social Activities and Community Participation: Dr. Yahya was a national figure on Diversity and Islamic Issues in the United States, with special attention to Race Relations and Psychology of Assimilation (generations 1,2 &3). He was invited as a public speaker to many TV shows and interviews in many countries. His philosophy includes enhancing knowledge to appreciate the others, and to compromise with others in order to live peacefully with others. This philosophy was the backgrounds of his theory, called “ Theory C. of Conflict Management”. And developed later to a Science of Cultural Normalization under the title: “Crescentology. The results of such theory will lead to world peace depends on a global Knowledge, Understanding, appreciation, and Compromising (KUAC)” Recently Prof. Yahya started "Publish your book FREE Project", to serve young Arab Writers. Dr. Yahya accepted the offer to be the chief editor of the International Humanities Studies Journal -I-H-S-Jerusalem, since July 2014. (Revised Sept. 2014) ولد الدكتور حسن عبدالقادر يحيى في مجدل يابا من أعمال يافا – فلسطين عام 1944. تلقى علومه الابتدائية في مدرسة بديا الأميرية في الضفة الغربية أيام احتوائها ضمن المملكة الأدردنية الهاشمية وتخرج في جامعة بيروت حاملاً الإجازة في اللغة العربية وآدابها، ودبلوم التأهيل التربوي من كلية القديس يوسف بلبنان، ودبلوم الدراسات العليا (الماجستير) ودكتوراة في الإدارة التربوية من جامعة ولاية ميشيغان بالولايات المتحدة عام 1988، وشهادة الدكتوراه في علم الاجتماع المقارن من الجامعة نفسها عام 1991. عمل في التدريس والصحافة الأدبية. أديب وشاعر وقاص ، ,كما عمل في تلفزيون الكويت الرسمي كمعد ومنسق برامج ثم اتجه إلى الكتابة والتأليف في علوم كثيرة تخص علمي النفس والاجتماع والتنمية البشرية ، والتغير الاجتماعي والسكان وألف ونشر العديد من المقالات (1000 +) والكتب باللغتين العربية والإنجليزية (أكثر من 330 كتابا) ، منها ست مجموعات قصصية وست كتب للأطفال ، وأربع دواوين شعرية باللغتين أيضا. وعدد من كتب التراث في الشعر والأدب والأخلاق الإسلامية والتربية والأديان . وهو الآن أستاذ متقاعد في جامعة ولاية ميشيغان. . وكان عضوا سابقا في جمعية العلماء المسلمين في أمريكا . وجمعية علماء الاجتماع الأمريكية - ميشيغان، وهو مؤسس الموسوعة العربية الأمريكية في الولايات المتحدة ضمن مشروع إحياء التراث العربي في بلاد المهجرز كما تم ترشيحه مؤخرا ليكون عضو مجلس التحرير لمجلة الدراسات الإنسانية العالمية. وقد قبل أن يتسلم رئاسة تحريرها اعتبارا من نهاية يونيو 2014 His email: askdryahya@yahoo.com Thank you!
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