*Quantum Theory is Physical Not a Social Theory*

*Hasan A. Yahya Ph.ds*

Unlike social theory, Quantum Theory is a modern physical theory that holds that energy and some other physical properties often exist in tiny, discrete amounts. Older theories of classical physics assumed that these properties could vary continuously. Quantum theory and the theory of relativity together form the theoretical basis of modern physics. The first contribution to quantum theory was the explanation of blackbody radiation in 1900 by Max Planck, who proposed that the energies of any harmonic oscillator are restricted to certain values, each of which is an integral multiple of a basic minimum value. For example, the energy E of this basic quantum is directly proportional to the frequency n of the oscillator; thus E = hn, where Plank’s constant h is equal to 6.63 x (10-34) J–sec. in 1905 Albert Einstein , in order to explain the photoelectric effect, proposed that radiation itself is also quantized and consists of light quanta or photons, that behave like particles. In 1913, another scientist named, Niels Bohr used the quantum theory to explain both atomic structure and atomic spectra. The light or other radiation emitted and absorbed by atoms is found to have only certain frequencies (or wavelengths), which correspond to the absorption or emission lines seen in atomic spectra. A spectrum however, is an arrangement or display of light or other forms of electromagnetic radiation separated according to wavelength, frequency, energy, or some other property. In this case, dispersion which is the separation of visible light into a spectrum, may be accomplished by means of PRISM or diffraction grating. Each different wavelength or frequency of visible light corresponds to a different color, so that the spectrum appears as a band of colors ranging from violet at the short-wave length (high frequency) end of the spectrum through indigo, blue, green, yellow, and orange, to read at the long-wavelength (low-frequency) end of the spectrum. A continuous spectrum containing all colors is produced by all incandescent solids and liquids and by gases under high pressure.

To go back to quantum theory, these frequencies correspond to definite energies of the photons and result from the fact that the electrons of the atoms can have only certain allowed energy values, or levels. When an electron changes from one allowed level to another, a quantum of energy is emitted or absorbed whose frequency is directly proportional to energy difference between the two energy levels E1 and E2, = hv. Quantum mechanics, the application of the quantum theory to the motions and material particles, was developed during the 1920s. The new observation added in 1924 and 1927, to the theory was made by Louis de Broglie (1924) , who proposed that not only does light exhibit particle-like properties but also particles may exhibit wavelike properties. In 1927, a particularly important discovery of the quantum theory was the uncertainty principle, enunciated by Warner Heisberg, that discovery places an absolute, theoretical limit on the combined accuracy of certain pairs of simultaneous, related measurement. (530 words) www.askdryahya.com/index.html

*Notes: *

*Key words:* E = hv , Where E = energy of a quantum in joules, h = Planck’s constant or 6.626 x 10 -34 J-sec and v = frequency in Hertz or sec-1 .

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