Quantum Theory is Physical Not a Social Theory


الدكاترة حسن يحيى

Quantum Theory is Physical Not a Social Theory

Hasan A. Yahya Ph.ds

Unlike social theory, Quantum Theory is a modern physical theory that holds that energy and some other physical properties often exist in tiny, discrete amounts. Older theories of classical physics assumed that these properties could vary continuously. Quantum theory and the theory of relativity together form the theoretical basis of modern physics. The first contribution to quantum theory was the explanation of blackbody radiation in 1900 by Max Planck, who proposed that the energies of any harmonic oscillator are restricted to certain values, each of which is an integral multiple of a basic minimum value. For example, the energy E of this basic quantum is directly proportional to the frequency n of the oscillator; thus E = hn, where Plank’s constant h is equal to 6.63 x (10-34) J–sec. in 1905 Albert Einstein , in order to explain the photoelectric effect,  proposed  that radiation itself is also quantized and consists of light quanta or photons, that behave like particles.  In 1913, another scientist named, Niels Bohr used the quantum theory to explain both atomic structure and atomic spectra. The light or other radiation emitted  and absorbed by atoms is found to have only certain frequencies (or wavelengths), which correspond to the absorption or emission lines seen in atomic spectra. A spectrum however, is an arrangement or display of light or other forms of electromagnetic radiation separated according to wavelength, frequency, energy, or some other property. In this case, dispersion which is the separation of visible light into a spectrum, may be accomplished by means of PRISM or diffraction grating.   Each different wavelength or frequency of visible light corresponds to a different color, so that the spectrum appears as a band of colors ranging from violet at the short-wave length (high frequency) end of the spectrum through indigo, blue, green, yellow, and orange, to read at the long-wavelength (low-frequency) end of the spectrum. A continuous spectrum containing all colors is produced by all incandescent solids and liquids and by gases under high pressure.

To go back to quantum theory, these frequencies  correspond to definite energies of the photons and result from the fact that the electrons of the atoms can have only certain allowed energy values, or levels.  When an electron changes from one allowed level to another, a quantum of energy is emitted or absorbed whose frequency is directly proportional to energy difference between  the two energy levels E1 and E2, = hv. Quantum mechanics, the application of the quantum theory to the motions and material particles, was developed during the 1920s. The new observation added in 1924 and 1927, to the theory was made by Louis de Broglie (1924) , who proposed that not only does light exhibit particle-like properties but also particles may exhibit wavelike properties. In 1927, a particularly important discovery of the quantum theory  was the uncertainty  principle, enunciated by Warner Heisberg,  that discovery places an absolute, theoretical limit on the combined accuracy of certain pairs of simultaneous, related measurement.  (530 words) www.askdryahya.com/index.html

Notes:   

Key words: E = hv , Where E = energy of a quantum in joules, h = Planck’s constant or 6.626 x 10 -34 J-sec  and v = frequency in Hertz or sec-1 .

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عرب يا رسول الله …. عرب لا يقرأون ولا يفكرون ولا يقدرون

حسبي الله ونعم الوكيل

About Arab American Encyclopedia-USA - Hasan Yahya

HASAN YAHYA was born at a small village called Majdal-YaFa (Majdal Sadiq) in Mandate Palestine (1944). He migrated as a refugee to Mes-ha, a village east of Kufr Qasim, west of Nablus (in the West Bank), then moved with his family to Zarka, 25 km north of Amman – Jordan. He finished the high school at Zarka Secondary School, 1963. He was appointed as a teacher in the same year. Studied Law first at Damascus University, then B.A from Lebanon University in Arabic literature and Eastern Cultures (1975). He moved to Kuwait. Where he got married in 1967. He was working at Kuwait Television, taught at bilingual School, and Kuwait University. In 1982, Hasan left to the United States to continue his education at Michigan State University. He got the Master Degree in 1983, the Ph.D degree in 1988 in Education (Psychology of Administration ). In 1991, He obtained his post degree in Social research, the result was a second Ph.D degree in Comparative sociology-Social Psychology. He was the only Arab student who enrolled ever to pursue two simultaneous Ph.D programs from Michigan State University and fulfill their requirements perfectly. Professor Yahya employment history began as a supervisor of a joint project to rehabilitate Youth (inmates out of prison) by Michigan State University and Intermediate School Districts. Worked also as a Teacher Assistant and lecturer in the same university. He was offered a position at Lansing Community College as well as Jackson Community College where he was assistant professor, then associate professor, then full professor (1991-2006). He taught Sociology, psychology, education, criminology and research methods. He supervised 19 Master and Ph.D candidates on various personal, economic psychological and social development topics. Professor Yahya published Hundreds (1000 Plus on this site) of articles and research reports in local, regional, and international journals. His interest covers local, regional and global conflicts. He also authored, translated, edited and published over 280 plus books in several languages, in almost all fields especial education, sociology and psychology. These books can be found on Amazon and Kindle. He also, was a visiting professor at Eastern Michigan University to give Research Methods and Conflict Management courses. Prof. Yahya accepted an offer to join Zayed University Faculty Team in 1998, then he served as the Head of Education and Psychology Department at Ajman University of Science and Technology 2001-04. Dr. Yahya established several institutes in Diaspora, the Arab American Encyclopedia, Ihyaa al Turath al Arabi Project, (Revival of Arab Heritage in Diaspora.Recently he was nominated for honorary committee member for the Union of Arab and Muslim Writers in America. He was affiliated with sociological associations and was a member of the Association of Muslim Social Scientists (AMSS) at USA. Social Activities and Community Participation: Dr. Yahya was a national figure on Diversity and Islamic Issues in the United States, with special attention to Race Relations and Psychology of Assimilation (generations 1,2 &3). He was invited as a public speaker to many TV shows and interviews in many countries. His philosophy includes enhancing knowledge to appreciate the others, and to compromise with others in order to live peacefully with others. This philosophy was the backgrounds of his theory, called “ Theory C. of Conflict Management”. And developed later to a Science of Cultural Normalization under the title: “Crescentology. The results of such theory will lead to world peace depends on a global Knowledge, Understanding, appreciation, and Compromising (KUAC)” Recently Prof. Yahya started "Publish your book FREE Project", to serve young Arab Writers. Dr. Yahya accepted the offer to be the chief editor of the International Humanities Studies Journal -I-H-S-Jerusalem, since July 2014. (Revised Sept. 2014) ولد الدكتور حسن عبدالقادر يحيى في مجدل يابا من أعمال يافا – فلسطين عام 1944. تلقى علومه الابتدائية في مدرسة بديا الأميرية في الضفة الغربية أيام احتوائها ضمن المملكة الأدردنية الهاشمية وتخرج في جامعة بيروت حاملاً الإجازة في اللغة العربية وآدابها، ودبلوم التأهيل التربوي من كلية القديس يوسف بلبنان، ودبلوم الدراسات العليا (الماجستير) ودكتوراة في الإدارة التربوية من جامعة ولاية ميشيغان بالولايات المتحدة عام 1988، وشهادة الدكتوراه في علم الاجتماع المقارن من الجامعة نفسها عام 1991. عمل في التدريس والصحافة الأدبية. أديب وشاعر وقاص ، ,كما عمل في تلفزيون الكويت الرسمي كمعد ومنسق برامج ثم اتجه إلى الكتابة والتأليف في علوم كثيرة تخص علمي النفس والاجتماع والتنمية البشرية ، والتغير الاجتماعي والسكان وألف ونشر العديد من المقالات (1000 +) والكتب باللغتين العربية والإنجليزية (أكثر من 330 كتابا) ، منها ست مجموعات قصصية وست كتب للأطفال ، وأربع دواوين شعرية باللغتين أيضا. وعدد من كتب التراث في الشعر والأدب والأخلاق الإسلامية والتربية والأديان . وهو الآن أستاذ متقاعد في جامعة ولاية ميشيغان. . وكان عضوا سابقا في جمعية العلماء المسلمين في أمريكا . وجمعية علماء الاجتماع الأمريكية - ميشيغان، وهو مؤسس الموسوعة العربية الأمريكية في الولايات المتحدة ضمن مشروع إحياء التراث العربي في بلاد المهجرز كما تم ترشيحه مؤخرا ليكون عضو مجلس التحرير لمجلة الدراسات الإنسانية العالمية. وقد قبل أن يتسلم رئاسة تحريرها اعتبارا من نهاية يونيو 2014 His email: askdryahya@yahoo.com Thank you!
This entry was posted in Articles, Hasan Yahya حسن يحيى, Ibn Khaldun ابن خلدون،, Philosophy & Logic, Research Methods, Science, Sociology. Bookmark the permalink.

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