دقيقتان مع الدكتور يحيى: أفكار للنهوض بالشعوب العربية ضمن مشروع نهضوي للعرب.
Two Minutes With Dr. Yahya: series of articles in the Process of Philosophy of the Arab Manifesto on nation Building.
Hasan Yahya, Ph.ds
ضمن مقالات فلسفة المشروع العربي
The Philosophy of the Arab Manifesto
الدكتور حسن يحيى ، أستاذ علم الاجتماع المقارن سابقا
In this series of articles , professor Hasan Yahya an expert in comparative sociology, covers an important topic: Education in the Arab Countries in the process of the Arab Manifesto on Nation Building. The series include: history, some misunderstood issues, females education, school management and teachers, evaluation and achievement and reformation in many Arab countries.
Tags: philosophy,Justice, Truth, education, universities, reform, renaissance, Arab, Islamic, Muslim, teachers, institutions, civil society, hasan yahya, dryahyatv,askdryahya, West, East, development, progress, Egypt, Sudan, Qatar, UAE, Dubai, Kuwait, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia.
لقطات حول التربية في العالم العربي / 1
Snapshots On Education in the Arab World/1
Introduction to the series. Usually, a snapshot means An isolated observation on a socio-political issue. In this snapshot we cover briefly history of education in the Arab World.
To start, we must never forget, amid all the difficulties that the Arab countries face today, that the Arab world has a long intellectual and educational tradition. It has a tradition of expending human energy and resources on the search for knowledge in all its forms.
A little more than one thousand years ago, a credit may be given in the field of education that the most developed part of the world was the Arab world. In that time of history, and during the Abbasid period, the Arabs led the world in many areas of knowledge. That nature of their leadership should hold lessons for today. Let me remind you first of some interesting aspects of the Arab education system of those times and then review where the region stands today regarding education.
An important basis for the blossoming of the Arab world was the statement of the the prophet Muhammad himself when he said that: “it is the duty of every Muslim (man and woman) to seek education”. This tradition founded mosque schools where under his influence Arabs pursued knowledge for its own sake. The use of Arabic, the language of the Qoran, spread with Islam and gave a common means of communication to people almost all areas of the world.
The Arabs were transformers of knowledge from previous civilizations. They translated and preserved teachings from Greece, India, China and Persia and from these texts a mass revolution in education began during the Abbasid dynasty (750H,1258AD) which we might compare to any campaign launched by the UN agencies today. Mosque schools were open to rich and poor and to men and women alike in soliatary or separated groups. Initially, lessons on the Koran and hadith (the science of tradition) were restricted to Muslims, non-Muslims could attend lessons in other subjects such as jurisprudence, philology, poetry and rhetoric.
Muslim philosophers and thinkers in almost all field of knowledge prospered in that period. Today, to many outside the Arab world, the term madrasa (which means place of learning place) evokes a narrow, even reactionary, education focused solely on the Koran. History tells a different story. As particular madrasas grew and attracted scholars from all over the Arab empire the number of disciplines grew. Teachers received good salaries and scholarships were available to students. Funds came from both government and private sources.
In a phenomenon that was a precursor to the movement of scholars between the universities of medieval Europe, travelling from city to city in search of knowledge was a common practice in the early centuries of Islam. Academies built up impressive collections of books and knowledge was freely shared. Arab influence spread to Spain and beyond, knowledge transfer based on Arab learning and scholarship helped to advance education in Europe, adding new disciplines to the traditional seven liberal arts, and introducing empirical methods to research.
To name a few examples of famous scholars and pholsophers, Avicenna (980–1037) and Averroes (1126–98) that Europe came to know the works of Aristotle. The Muslim world was far more advanced in its knowledge of Greek philosophy than the West. Muslims had access to the chief works of Aristotle before Western Europe finally received them.
Concerning women, the hot issue in western perception, viewing of the current status of women in much of the Arab world in those days there were no restrictions on women attending classes and pursuing knowledge, women became teachers, taught classes included men. At that time Arab women contributed strongly to the economic, political and social life of their society. They excelled in medicine, poetry, oratory and several other subjects.
In numerical terms today, Arab education has made slow if steady progress in recent years, even if a good part of the expansion of school systems has been absorbed by the rapid increase in the population of children. However, the challenge is not merely, indeed not primarily, numerical. All Arab States must reflect on whether the educational systems that they are trying to expand are properly organized to achieve the objectives that they wish to achieve. (713 words)
@Hasan Yahya, Michigan, April 2012
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