Two Minutes With Dr. Yahya: Philosophy of Arab Manifesto.
ضمن مقالات فلسفة المشروع العربي
The Philosophy of the Arab Manifesto
Articles On Philosophy/2
Professor of Philosophy
Beginning with Arabs and Jews philosophers who lived in an Islamic land, namely, Andalusia (Spain) for a long time, the intellect were educated in Arabic language. I studies Muslim, Jewish and Christian philosophers, for example in Islam I was fond of al-Kindi, al-Ghazali, al-Farabi, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Ibn Rush (Averroes), In Judaism, Moses Maimonides, and Saadiah Geon, and in Christianity, Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas. Because I believed that the best human state is to be a philosopher, because wise men of the world are philosophers. They dealt with every question through reason until proved true. For them, reasons of things are gathered from things around them. In the early years of my studies at the university I was fond of studying theories and their application. When philosophy pumped up in my mind one day, I was in a group discussing the relation between the two R’s (reason and revelation).
Jews and Muslim philosophers in that period fought parallel battles concerning the study of philosophy especially in the subject of the two R’s. Moses Maimonides in his “treatise on Logic” referred the debate between superiority of logic over grammar, portraying logic as universal grammar and distinguishing between generally accepted religious opinions, traditions and universally as necessary valid ones.
Al-Ghazali can be viewed as anti-philosophical, but in fact, he was not opposed to philosophy per say, but rather challenged the philosophical approaches of those who in uncritical way accepted too readily certain Greek philosophical positions. For example, Aristotelian theses concerning the natural world by affirming that God knows only universals, not particulars, and maintaining that the world and soul are eternal.
Saadiah Geon, the Jewish philosopher, wrote in Arabic in the 10th century. His book “Doctrines of Beliefs” to enhance Jewish belief. He provided “Attributes of God” like Muslims who made “the 99 Best God’s names” Both al-Ghazali and Saadiah denunciated the Christian Trinity, and defended the four Aristotelian arguments about: Creation-nihilo, but opposed Aristotle’s theory of eternity of the world.
The main conflict between philosophy and theology in terms of the two Rs roads were similar and reached their highest intensity when philosophy, is taken in its strictest sense, referring to the Platonic Philosophy in the earlier medieval conflicts, that led to the philosophy of Aristotle when his non-logical works become translated into Arabic and Latin.
Averroes and Maimonides were influential philosophers in their commentaries and translation, the second followed strongly the first, in addition to al-Farabi. The extended results of the debate for al-Farabi was, that religion is essentially the popular expression of philosophy, communicated to the non-philosophical beliefs of the prophets. Al-Farabi position is as influential among others including Averroes, and Avicenna. Maimonides was the one who provided a contrast treatment of philosophical logic and grammar of ordinary language. He adopted the same beliefs in their systems. The attitudes in the 11th century toward reason and revelation were found unacceptable by many Muslim and Jewish theologians who interpret the Divine Laws.
Al-Kindi, earlier, however, a Muslim philosopher, began atBaghdad, where the translations of Aristotle’s “Metaphysics” and “On the Heavens” made and became available.
Averroes was in charge of a project to clear Aristotle philosophy and ideas. Giving his rebuttal “Tahafut al-Tahafut” to al-Ghazali’s book “Tahafut al-Falasiphah”. Incoherence of Philosophers. In addition, Averroes gave his famous commentaries on Aristotle’s ideas, in the old logic of Aristotle and al-ghazali, and the new logic of Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Ibn Rushd (Averroes), where the first emphasizes the theological philosophy, and the second two emphasize Aristotle’s Prior Analtics, Posterior, Analytics Topics and sophistical refutations, known after Arab, Jewish, and Christian Philosophers translations of Averroes and Avicenna, Moses Maimonides, and Thomas Aquinas.(Yahya: The Cor of Logic for the Arab and Muslim world– 2009)
For Averroes, the Qur’an in fact, requires the intellectical elites (Ulama) to pursue philosophy Where the core is logic. There are few of these intellectuals who can distinguish between demonstration on the one hand and not demonstration on the other in a true argument. Because demonstration term followed creation of the matter first to be demonstrated by logic. Yahya (2009) in the above mentioned article describes the combined Muslim, Jewish, and Christian thoughts about the truth. He says:
“In Islam Qur’an, as well as Torah and Bible, expresses its truth, by three levels corresponding to three main intellectual classes, namely, demonstratively, dialectically, and rhetorically, demonstrative as valid reasoning from necessary creation, as Aristotle, Averroes, and Avicenna demonstrated in their thought on matter and existence as the highest form of rational discourse and only produces perfect knowledge. It is also, the only one guarantees unity of truth.” (Yahya 2009)
Maimonides translated Averroes’s commentaries from Arabic to Hebrew, then later translated to Latin, Where it became available forEuropephilosophers. Without this continuous line of thoughts concerning logic, started with Aristotle through Islam, Averroes and Judaism, Maimonides to Christians with Thomas Aquinas and ended with the renaissance philosophers, none of this logic have been available today. We awe much to the cooperation of the three faiths to bring civilization to modern times. (853 words) Hasanyahya.com
@Hasan Yahya, Michigan, April 2012
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Hasan Yahya is a Palestinian Sociologist and Historian, former professor of Comparative Sociology and Educational Administration at Michigan State University and Jackson Community College. He is the Board Editing member at International Humanities Studies (IHS) Journal. Dr. Yahya is the originator of Arab American Encyclopedia and Ihyaa al Turath al Arabi fil Mahjar-USA. His publication may be observed on Amazon and Kindle. To reach the writer: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ph.D in Comparative Socioloy 1991, Michigan State University.
Ph.D in Educational Administration, Michigan State Univ.
M.A Psychology of Schhols Conflict Management, Michigan State Univ.
Diploma M.A, Oriental Studies, St. Joseph Univ. Beirut, Lebanon
B.A Modern and Classical Arab Literature
Life Achievements: Publishing 250 plus Books and 1000 plus articles
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