Two Minutes with Dr. Yahya: Research Fallacies-دقيقتان مع الدكتور يحيى: أخطاء البحوث العلمية

Two Minutes with Dr. Yahya: Research Fallacies

دقيقتان مع الدكتور يحيى: أخطاء البحوث العلمية

Philosophy of Arab Manifesto مشروع النهضة العربي

Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.ds-Former professor of Comparative sociology

Hasan Yahya On Amazon

Hasan Yahya 250 books on Amazon

Knowing fallacies in doing research is an important issue for researchers before determining empirically how individuals perform. Group averages my mislead good judgment. Further more, behavior is correlated with many variables different among individuals and groups. Therefore we cannot argue generalization of one case on the whole population. Fallacies can be related to sample selection, to stereotyping, to validity measures, and conclusions.

A fallacy is an error in reasoning, usually based on mistaken assumptions. Researchers are very familiar with all the ways they could go wrong, with the fallacies they are susceptible to. Time, space and ranks of people in the sample are possible important errors in doing research.Especially in generalization of results.

The generalization or the ecological fallacy occurs when researchers make conclusions about individuals based only on analyses of group data.

For example, assuming that all Americans are millionaires, according to a sample of Millionnaires creates an error to generalize the results by describing every American as Millionnaire.Becasue to assume that you measured the Millionnaires  in a particular area, and found that they had the highest average wealth in the district, it does not mean that every American is a millionaire.

The other fallacy of generalization, the stereotyping (or exception) fallacy is sort of the reverse to the first one. It occurs when you reach a group conclusion on the basis of exceptional cases. This is the kind of fallacious reasoning that is at the core of a lot of sexism and racism in the form of stereotyping. An example on stereotype is when a person  who sees or hears about an Arab Muslim makes an error of terror act,   and concludes that “all Arabs and Muslims (anywhere) are bloody terrorists.” These are wrong! Fallacies! Far from true, but believed widely by simple, ignorant or  may be racist people.

Researchers therefore, should be careful of these fallacies in doing research. Fallacies are traps exist in both research and everyday reasoning. They also show how important it is that we do research.

The whole controversy around the fallacy of Normal Curve usually leads to error, in terms of time, space and people sampling. Methods of learning should be wide and diverse enough to include the best learning methods in terms of students ability no matter how long it takes. Connecting race for example to IQ is unfair measure in this case. Because empirically determined results on how individuals perform. Using the Normal Curve in finding correlation between certain behaviors and certain groups is may be suitable in some cases, but any attempt to examine whether the supposed relationship between race (black, white, & Yellow etc.,) or ethnicity and IQ seems to be real but many argue that it is a fallacy.

@Hasan Yahya, Michigan, May  2012

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عرب يا رسول الله ….عرب

طيبون ، ولكن أكثرهم لا يقرأون ، وقليل منهم يعلمون، فهل ندعهم في غيهم وجهلهم يعمهون؟ فيا عربي ، اجعل القراءة من هواياتك المفضلة، وإذا أعجبك ما تقرأ فساهم في إحياء التراث العربي في المهجر،  أرسلوا مساهماتكم وما يجود به كرمكم وليس على الكريم شرط ، عبر حساب البي بال PayPal Account


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كتاب مقاييس الدكتور يحيى للبحوث النفسية والاجتماعية

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About Arab American Encyclopedia-USA - Hasan Yahya

HASAN YAHYA was born at a small village called Majdal-YaFa (Majdal Sadiq) in Mandate Palestine (1944). He migrated as a refugee to Mes-ha, a village east of Kufr Qasim, west of Nablus (in the West Bank), then moved with his family to Zarka, 25 km north of Amman – Jordan. He finished the high school at Zarka Secondary School, 1963. He was appointed as a teacher in the same year. Studied Law first at Damascus University, then B.A from Lebanon University in Arabic literature and Eastern Cultures (1975). He moved to Kuwait. Where he got married in 1967. He was working at Kuwait Television, taught at bilingual School, and Kuwait University. In 1982, Hasan left to the United States to continue his education at Michigan State University. He got the Master Degree in 1983, the Ph.D degree in 1988 in Education (Psychology of Administration ). In 1991, He obtained his post degree in Social research, the result was a second Ph.D degree in Comparative sociology-Social Psychology. He was the only Arab student who enrolled ever to pursue two simultaneous Ph.D programs from Michigan State University and fulfill their requirements perfectly. Professor Yahya employment history began as a supervisor of a joint project to rehabilitate Youth (inmates out of prison) by Michigan State University and Intermediate School Districts. Worked also as a Teacher Assistant and lecturer in the same university. He was offered a position at Lansing Community College as well as Jackson Community College where he was assistant professor, then associate professor, then full professor (1991-2006). He taught Sociology, psychology, education, criminology and research methods. He supervised 19 Master and Ph.D candidates on various personal, economic psychological and social development topics. Professor Yahya published Hundreds (1000 Plus on this site) of articles and research reports in local, regional, and international journals. His interest covers local, regional and global conflicts. He also authored, translated, edited and published over 280 plus books in several languages, in almost all fields especial education, sociology and psychology. These books can be found on Amazon and Kindle. He also, was a visiting professor at Eastern Michigan University to give Research Methods and Conflict Management courses. Prof. Yahya accepted an offer to join Zayed University Faculty Team in 1998, then he served as the Head of Education and Psychology Department at Ajman University of Science and Technology 2001-04. Dr. Yahya established several institutes in Diaspora, the Arab American Encyclopedia, Ihyaa al Turath al Arabi Project, (Revival of Arab Heritage in Diaspora.Recently he was nominated for honorary committee member for the Union of Arab and Muslim Writers in America. He was affiliated with sociological associations and was a member of the Association of Muslim Social Scientists (AMSS) at USA. Social Activities and Community Participation: Dr. Yahya was a national figure on Diversity and Islamic Issues in the United States, with special attention to Race Relations and Psychology of Assimilation (generations 1,2 &3). He was invited as a public speaker to many TV shows and interviews in many countries. His philosophy includes enhancing knowledge to appreciate the others, and to compromise with others in order to live peacefully with others. This philosophy was the backgrounds of his theory, called “ Theory C. of Conflict Management”. And developed later to a Science of Cultural Normalization under the title: “Crescentology. The results of such theory will lead to world peace depends on a global Knowledge, Understanding, appreciation, and Compromising (KUAC)” Recently Prof. Yahya started "Publish your book FREE Project", to serve young Arab Writers. Dr. Yahya accepted the offer to be the chief editor of the International Humanities Studies Journal -I-H-S-Jerusalem, since July 2014. (Revised Sept. 2014) ولد الدكتور حسن عبدالقادر يحيى في مجدل يابا من أعمال يافا – فلسطين عام 1944. تلقى علومه الابتدائية في مدرسة بديا الأميرية في الضفة الغربية أيام احتوائها ضمن المملكة الأدردنية الهاشمية وتخرج في جامعة بيروت حاملاً الإجازة في اللغة العربية وآدابها، ودبلوم التأهيل التربوي من كلية القديس يوسف بلبنان، ودبلوم الدراسات العليا (الماجستير) ودكتوراة في الإدارة التربوية من جامعة ولاية ميشيغان بالولايات المتحدة عام 1988، وشهادة الدكتوراه في علم الاجتماع المقارن من الجامعة نفسها عام 1991. عمل في التدريس والصحافة الأدبية. أديب وشاعر وقاص ، ,كما عمل في تلفزيون الكويت الرسمي كمعد ومنسق برامج ثم اتجه إلى الكتابة والتأليف في علوم كثيرة تخص علمي النفس والاجتماع والتنمية البشرية ، والتغير الاجتماعي والسكان وألف ونشر العديد من المقالات (1000 +) والكتب باللغتين العربية والإنجليزية (أكثر من 330 كتابا) ، منها ست مجموعات قصصية وست كتب للأطفال ، وأربع دواوين شعرية باللغتين أيضا. وعدد من كتب التراث في الشعر والأدب والأخلاق الإسلامية والتربية والأديان . وهو الآن أستاذ متقاعد في جامعة ولاية ميشيغان. . وكان عضوا سابقا في جمعية العلماء المسلمين في أمريكا . وجمعية علماء الاجتماع الأمريكية - ميشيغان، وهو مؤسس الموسوعة العربية الأمريكية في الولايات المتحدة ضمن مشروع إحياء التراث العربي في بلاد المهجرز كما تم ترشيحه مؤخرا ليكون عضو مجلس التحرير لمجلة الدراسات الإنسانية العالمية. وقد قبل أن يتسلم رئاسة تحريرها اعتبارا من نهاية يونيو 2014 His email: Thank you!
This entry was posted in Arab Affairs, Arab American Encyclopedia, Arab Manifesto, Biology Science, Business Management, Decision Making, Hasan Yahya حسن يحيى, Ibn Khaldun ابن خلدون،, Philosophy & Logic, Project Management., psychology, Research Methods, Sociology, حضارة عرب،. Bookmark the permalink.

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