Personalities I Admire: Abu Hamid al Ghazali
علماء العرب المسلمين – أبو حامد الغزالي
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Great Arab Personalities Series: Abu Hamid al Ghazali**
**A part of “Ihy’a al Turath al Arabi Fil Mahjar” serie (number 73). Sponsored and financed by Dr.Hasan Yahya, the former professor of Comparative sociology. Michigan State University graduate with two doctorate degrees, 1988, 1991. It will be included in the author’s book: Great Arab-Muslim Thinkers in History. (soon to be published, to be a handbook for young Arab and Muslim generation in Diaspora schools (في بلاد المهجر) .
Abu Hamid al Ghazali, an Arab Muslim philosopher, lived between ( 1058 and 1111 A.D. ) His full name is Abu Hamid Ibn Muhammad Ibn Muhammad al-Tusi al-Shafi’ . He was born in 1058 A.D. in Khorasan, Iran. His father died while he was still very young but he had the opportunity of getting education in the prevalent curriculum at Nishapur and Baghdad. Soon he acquired a high standard of scholarship in religion and philosophy and was honored by his appointment as a Professor at the Nizamiyah University of Baghdad, which was recognized as one of the most reputed institutions of learning in the golden era of Muslim history.
After a few years, however, he gave up his academic pursuits and worldly interests and became a wandering ascetic. This. was a process (period) of mystical transformation. Later, he resumed his teaching duties, but again left these. An era of solitary life, devoted to contemplation and writing then ensued, which led to the author- ship of a number of everlasting hooks. He died in 1111 A.D. at Baghdad.
Ghazali’s major contribution lies in religion, philosophy and sufism. A number of Muslim philosophers had been following and developing several viewpoints of Greek philosophy, including the Neoplatonic philosophy, and this was leading to conflict with several Islamic teachings. On the other hand, the movement of sufism was assuming such excessive proportions as to avoid observance of obligatory prayers and duties of Islam. Based on his unquestionable scholarship and personal mystical experience, Ghazali sought to rectify these trends, both in philosophy and sufism.
In philosophy, Ghazali upheld the approach of mathematics and exact sciences as essentially correct. However, he adopted the techniques of Aristotelian logic and the Neoplatonic procedures and employed these very tools to lay bare the flaws and lacunas of the then prevalent Neoplatonic philosophy arid to diminish the negative influences of Aristotelianism and excessive rationalism. In contrast to some of the Muslim philosophers, e.g., Farabi, he portrayed the inability of reason to comprehend the absolute and the infinite. Reason could not transcend the finite and was limited to the observation of the relative. Also, several Muslim philosophers had held that the universe was finite in space but infinite in time. Ghazali argued that an infinite time was related to an infinite space. With his clarity of thought and force of argument, he was able to create a balance between religion and reason, and identified their respective spheres as being the infinite and the finite, respectively.
In religion, particularly mysticism, he cleansed the approach of sufism of its excesses and reestablished the authority of the orthodox religion. Yet, he stressed the importance of genuine sufism, which he maintained was the path to attain the absolute truth.
He was a prolific writer. His immortal books include Tuhafut al-Falasifa (The Incoherence of the Philosophers), Ihya al-‘Ulum al-Islamia (The Rivival of the Religious Sciences), “The Beginning of Guidance and his Autobiography”, “Deliverance from Error”. Some of his works were translated into European languages in the Middle Ages. He also wrote a summary of astronomy.
Ghazali’s influence was deep and everlasting. He is one of the greatest theologians of Islam. His theological doctrines penetrated Europe, influenced Jewish and Christian Scholasticism and several of his arguments seem to have been adopted by St. Thomas Aquinas in order to similarly reestablish the authority of orthodox Christian religion in the West. So forceful was his argument in the favor of religion that he was accused of damaging the cause of philosophy and, in the Muslim Spain, Ibn Rushd (Averros) wrote a rejoinder to his Tuhafut. AAE
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Hasan Yahya is a Palestinian Sociologist and Historian, former professor of Comparative Sociology and Educational Administration at Michigan State University and Jackson Community College. He is the Board Editing member at International Humanities Studies (IHS) Journal. Dr. Yahya is the originator of Arab American Encyclopedia and Ihyaa al Turath al Arabi fil Mahjar-USA. His (250 plus) publication may be observed on Amazon and Kindle. To reach the writer: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Yahya Credentials:
Ph.D in Comparative Socioloy 1991, Michigan State University.
Ph.D in Educational Administration, Michigan State Univ.
M.A Psychology of Schhols Conflict Management, Michigan State Univ.
Diploma M.A, Oriental Studies, St. Joseph Univ. Beirut, Lebanon
B.A Modern and Classical Arab Literature
Life Achievements: Publishing 250 plus Books and 1000 plus articles