The Arab Manifesto: Sociology of Muslim Brothers Ethics and the Spirit of Secularism


The Arab Manifesto

Sociology of Muslim Brothers Ethics and the Spirit of Secularism

H.A. Yahya, former professor of comparative

The Arab Countries Flagswww.hasanyahya.com

The Arab Countries Flags

Secularism religiously defined by Muslim Sheiks (al Qaradhawi for instance) who attacked the concept and described as : Deviation for faith. (See my 7 parts response to al Qaradawi’s Book titled: ‘Al-Hulul al Mustawradah wa Kayfa Jaat `alaa Ummatina’, the reported solutions and how it came to our nation(Islamic Ummah).

In my article : Titled: H.E Yusuf Al-Qaradawi On Secularism vs. Islam – Part I, I wrote:

“H.E. Dr. Yusuf al-Qaradawi’s thesis about his latest book secularism vs Islam. Shiekh Qaradawi  is an authority on Islam widely known and respected among Muslims. He’s an Egyptian by nationality lives in the Gulf state of Qatar, where famous Al-Jazeerah Arabic Channel has weekly program for the Shiekh, under the title: Islam and Life. Recently, he was denied entry visa to Britain because of his sharp criticism to the west, which he strongly denies. Recently in his book: Secularism vs. Islam, under the Arabic title: ‘Al-Hulul al Mustawradah wa Kayfa Jaat `alaa Ummatina’? “How the Imported Solutions Disastrously Affected Our Ummah” pp 113-4, He justifies rejection of secularism by saying: “Secularism may be accepted in a Christian society but it can never enjoy a general acceptance in an Islamic society. Christianity is devoid of a shari`ah or a comprehensive system of life to which its adherents should be committed. The New Testament itself divides life into two parts: one for God, or religion, the other for Caesar, or the state: “Render unto Caesar things which belong to Caesar, and render unto God things which belong to God” (Matthew 22:21). As such, a Christian could accept secularism without any qualms of conscience. Furthermore, Westerners, especially Christians, have good reasons to prefer a secular regime to a religious one. Their experience with “religious regimes” – as they knew them – meant the rule of the clergy, the despotic authority of the Church, and the resulting decrees of excommunication and the deeds of forgiveness, i.e. letters of indulgence.” (Yahya 2010, 2012)

Therefore, according to honorable sheikh for Muslim societies, “the acceptance of secularism means something totally different; i.e. as Islam is a comprehensive system of worship (`ibadah) and legislation (Shari`ah), the acceptance of secularism means abandonment of Shari`ah, a denial of the divine guidance and a rejection of Allah’s injunctions.”

As we see this is a wild judgment against secularism taken for granted by Muslim Brothers and Salfis alike. Al Qaradawi further gives instructions to falsify the  claim that Shariah is not proper to the requirements of the present age. And gives examples from Qur’an comparing knowledge of human beings to the knowledge of God. “The acceptance of a legislation formulated by humans means a preference of the humans’ limited knowledge and experiences to the divine guidance: “Say! Do you know better than Allah?” (2:140).

image003The Muslim Brothers’ ethics is vague and rejected on the ground of disputation with other Muslim groups (Salfis, radical groups and secularists, on the grounds of Islamic ethics which promote definition of society according to Muslim beliefs.). The daily political and social activities and solutions provided to stop the turmoil in Egypt and elsewhere, are far from secular laws, which may create the failure of Muslim Ethics in the face of secular (modern institutions). In Europe, however, the situation was different, the protestant ethics was dominated other groups in the way they solve social and economic problems by creating the state of law. With firm constitutions include all sects of Christianity and all other religious sects (Catholics, Jews, Muslims, atheists, etc.’).

The Muslim Brothers ethics as dominant in the Arab states are following H. E. Sheikh al Qaradawi’s interpretation of modern Islam as rejecting secularization. Therefore, Muslim Brothers are not able to get rid of the church teachings, like the case in Europe. In no way, the circumstances of The Prophet’s Age are very much different from modern times. And in no way, ethics can win as the Muslim Brothers claim. For one reason, may be logical, in faith, selfishness and identity deny the contributions of non-Muslims in making the modern state. Insistance of the Muslim Brothers on one faith state will be rejected on line with modern ethics. No matter religious or secular.

As far as the circumstances are sharply different, excluding some people in the state (other religions or women, or other sects, Shi’ah or Baha’i) is a mark of decay toward the church. In this case, logic has a defeated position in any argument to solve everyday political, economic oe social problems on both individual an communal levels.

My attempt here in this study is similar to Weber, the German philosopher, in his  study who shows in : “The Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism” (Weber 1958), that affinity of faith and modern socioeconomic organizations was successful in Europe and the new land.

Salafi groups are in a sharp difference to Muslim Brothers position in politics. He elective affinity between both groups ideas and particular types of economic activities. For example, Salfis claim that the old system in times of Muhammad has to be applied, while the Muslim Brothers approach has modern political reflexivity beside Islamic ethics.

In our study we may hypothesize a nexus between Muslim Brothers religious beliefs and the development of modern economic system (such as mixture of capitalist-socialist form, for example) would be much appropriate than the Salafi approaches. Without such relations between ethics and modern spirit for freedom and democracy, the project for modern Egyptian (or Arab or Muslim) democratcy. Our hypothesis depends on modern Islam, as Weber saw it as a prophetic, this-worldly, salvationist religion with strong connections with other Abrahamic religions and regarded it as a useful test case of his thesis.

Unfortunately, we may argue that rational formal law, autonomous cities, an independent bourgeois class, and political stability are still totally absent in Islamic society because of the domination of tribal, familial and  patrimonial bureaucracy.

We also may argue according to historical facts,  that a hedonistic spirit and an accommodating Qoranic ethic could not produce salvation anxiety and that asceticism was blocked by two important social groups: the warrior group (army leaders and caliphs) that was the social carrier of Islam and the Sufi brotherhoods that developed mystical religiosity.

In modern times, the situation still exist. Salafis and others, Muslim Brothers and others. The new factor which may change the stagnation of mystical religiosity  is the secularists who are mixture of both (Muslim intellectuals) and modern ideas of progress.

While Weber’s hypothesis was inaccurate and criticized, because “the differential of Islam seem institutional” unlike ideological,which stamps Christianity, but “they operate in a contrasted institutional melieu’’ (Gellner 1983, p. 6).

Those who study Muslim societies like Gillner (1969, 1983, 1992, 1994), identify unvarying features of Muslim societies that make them susceptible to sociological analysis. Building on the work of Ibn Khaldun, he postulates a dialectic between city and tribe, each with its own form of religion. The central and perhaps most important feature of Islam, according to Gellner, is that it was internally divided into the high Islam of scholars and the folk (low) Islam of the people, (and I might add secular mentalities). High Islam is primarily urban, and folk Islam is primarily tribal and rural even if they reside in cities and villages. I agree with Gillner’s notion that although the boundaries between the two were not sharp but gradual and ambiguous, they nevertheless projected a distinctive tradition.This I believe is the corner stone for modern solution. One has to dominate, but not without modern laws and sound constitutions. Otherwise, the revival of Arab Manifest will be delayed until one side, armed with both ethics and logic of modern management, and modern institutions equalize treatment of all citizens on the same grounds of justice and recognition. The process of enlightening of common people will hinder the process of Arab Manifesto, but in the end, the new spirit of mental abilities and logical arrangements of law and constitution will come to prevail. Not necessarily, verbatim  as the case in Europe.

image023In the Egyptian case, The Muslim Brothers as the leaders of the country, and of course by the president, should have a plan to fully dominate the country. The practices and activities so far by the Muslim Brothers are far from the right track toward the 25 January revolution goals. In order to satisfy the people trust, he should come to real negations with all the sides, in spite of differences, at least to gain trust of the people. Later on, he might with the Muslim Brothers strengthen their position to lead according their ethics, which will not strictly following the steps of Muhammad, because that’s impossible in modern technological world, but they can according to logical plan to introduce with the other sides a roadmap for Free Egypt, at least as a slogan.

In conclusion, I might say, The old Arab and Muslim adverb “ you may fool the people once, but never forever. Or no one may put his hand in the hall of snake twice. The progress toward modern daily life is not contrary to the life of next world. And finally, enlightening time in the marsh of civilization, democracy and freedom, never go back to ignorance and failure of tribal, patriarchical, and theological rules. Evil and good were fighting each other across history, but people today in Egypt are in a stage of enlightenment, the Egyptian people will find the way to communal stability and state law according to sound constitution. I have no doubt, but this will take short or very long time. But the marsh has begun starting since January, 25, 2011. www.hasanyahya.com

*** Note for readers: If you like this, please let other people know about it. You may contact the author using this site. Thank you!

            Read the writer’s 270 books HERE or Here

أقرأوا للكاتب بعضا من 270  كتابا هنا أو هنا وشكرا .والله يرعاكم .

Arab American Encyclopedia-AAE

أنا على يقين أنكم إذا زرتم هذه المواقع ستجدون ما يسركم ويعجبكم من الكتب النافعة

والمحببة إلى نفوس القراء والقارئات العرب في المهاجر، وشكرا جزيلا للمساهمين في هذا المشروع النبيل

About Arab American Encyclopedia-USA - Hasan Yahya

HASAN YAHYA was born at a small village called Majdal-YaFa (Majdal Sadiq) in Mandate Palestine (1944). He migrated as a refugee to Mes-ha, a village east of Kufr Qasim, west of Nablus (in the West Bank), then moved with his family to Zarka, 25 km north of Amman – Jordan. He finished the high school at Zarka Secondary School, 1963. He was appointed as a teacher in the same year. Studied Law first at Damascus University, then B.A from Lebanon University in Arabic literature and Eastern Cultures (1975). He moved to Kuwait. Where he got married in 1967. He was working at Kuwait Television, taught at bilingual School, and Kuwait University. In 1982, Hasan left to the United States to continue his education at Michigan State University. He got the Master Degree in 1983, the Ph.D degree in 1988 in Education (Psychology of Administration ). In 1991, He obtained his post degree in Social research, the result was a second Ph.D degree in Comparative sociology-Social Psychology. He was the only Arab student who enrolled ever to pursue two simultaneous Ph.D programs from Michigan State University and fulfill their requirements perfectly. Professor Yahya employment history began as a supervisor of a joint project to rehabilitate Youth (inmates out of prison) by Michigan State University and Intermediate School Districts. Worked also as a Teacher Assistant and lecturer in the same university. He was offered a position at Lansing Community College as well as Jackson Community College where he was assistant professor, then associate professor, then full professor (1991-2006). He taught Sociology, psychology, education, criminology and research methods. He supervised 19 Master and Ph.D candidates on various personal, economic psychological and social development topics. Professor Yahya published Hundreds (1000 Plus on this site) of articles and research reports in local, regional, and international journals. His interest covers local, regional and global conflicts. He also authored, translated, edited and published over 280 plus books in several languages, in almost all fields especial education, sociology and psychology. These books can be found on Amazon and Kindle. He also, was a visiting professor at Eastern Michigan University to give Research Methods and Conflict Management courses. Prof. Yahya accepted an offer to join Zayed University Faculty Team in 1998, then he served as the Head of Education and Psychology Department at Ajman University of Science and Technology 2001-04. Dr. Yahya established several institutes in Diaspora, the Arab American Encyclopedia, Ihyaa al Turath al Arabi Project, (Revival of Arab Heritage in Diaspora.Recently he was nominated for honorary committee member for the Union of Arab and Muslim Writers in America. He was affiliated with sociological associations and was a member of the Association of Muslim Social Scientists (AMSS) at USA. Social Activities and Community Participation: Dr. Yahya was a national figure on Diversity and Islamic Issues in the United States, with special attention to Race Relations and Psychology of Assimilation (generations 1,2 &3). He was invited as a public speaker to many TV shows and interviews in many countries. His philosophy includes enhancing knowledge to appreciate the others, and to compromise with others in order to live peacefully with others. This philosophy was the backgrounds of his theory, called “ Theory C. of Conflict Management”. And developed later to a Science of Cultural Normalization under the title: “Crescentology. The results of such theory will lead to world peace depends on a global Knowledge, Understanding, appreciation, and Compromising (KUAC)” Recently Prof. Yahya started "Publish your book FREE Project", to serve young Arab Writers. Dr. Yahya accepted the offer to be the chief editor of the International Humanities Studies Journal -I-H-S-Jerusalem, since July 2014. (Revised Sept. 2014) ولد الدكتور حسن عبدالقادر يحيى في مجدل يابا من أعمال يافا – فلسطين عام 1944. تلقى علومه الابتدائية في مدرسة بديا الأميرية في الضفة الغربية أيام احتوائها ضمن المملكة الأدردنية الهاشمية وتخرج في جامعة بيروت حاملاً الإجازة في اللغة العربية وآدابها، ودبلوم التأهيل التربوي من كلية القديس يوسف بلبنان، ودبلوم الدراسات العليا (الماجستير) ودكتوراة في الإدارة التربوية من جامعة ولاية ميشيغان بالولايات المتحدة عام 1988، وشهادة الدكتوراه في علم الاجتماع المقارن من الجامعة نفسها عام 1991. عمل في التدريس والصحافة الأدبية. أديب وشاعر وقاص ، ,كما عمل في تلفزيون الكويت الرسمي كمعد ومنسق برامج ثم اتجه إلى الكتابة والتأليف في علوم كثيرة تخص علمي النفس والاجتماع والتنمية البشرية ، والتغير الاجتماعي والسكان وألف ونشر العديد من المقالات (1000 +) والكتب باللغتين العربية والإنجليزية (أكثر من 330 كتابا) ، منها ست مجموعات قصصية وست كتب للأطفال ، وأربع دواوين شعرية باللغتين أيضا. وعدد من كتب التراث في الشعر والأدب والأخلاق الإسلامية والتربية والأديان . وهو الآن أستاذ متقاعد في جامعة ولاية ميشيغان. . وكان عضوا سابقا في جمعية العلماء المسلمين في أمريكا . وجمعية علماء الاجتماع الأمريكية - ميشيغان، وهو مؤسس الموسوعة العربية الأمريكية في الولايات المتحدة ضمن مشروع إحياء التراث العربي في بلاد المهجرز كما تم ترشيحه مؤخرا ليكون عضو مجلس التحرير لمجلة الدراسات الإنسانية العالمية. وقد قبل أن يتسلم رئاسة تحريرها اعتبارا من نهاية يونيو 2014 His email: askdryahya@yahoo.com Thank you!
This entry was posted in Arab Manifesto, Ethics and Morality, Islam & Muslim Affairs, Knowledge Base, Middle East Politics, Philosophy & Logic, Religions and Spirts, Sociology, Sociology of Education, تربية وتعليم ، Education, حضارة عرب، and tagged , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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