Two Minutes with Dr. Yahya: The Moral System of Islam
Arab American Encyclopedia-Hasan Yahya
According to Al milal wal Nihal, a book written in the twelve century by Muhammad al-Shahrastani (d.1153 CE). The book was a study of religious communities and philosophies that had existed up to his time, considered to be the first systematic study of religion. The book shows hundreds of religious and philosophical sects, where people across history never come to a mutual understanding of each other. Therefore, we as scholars studying conflict management should learn that phenomenon. People like to have freedom to think and act according to moral codes, respected and followed by themselves or by their groups. These moral codes since Hamurabi passing through Jewish and Christian ethics and reaching Islamic moral system have in common security of self , family and community. Even though different they look, they are united in moral measures under universal social justice codes.
Islamic history of knowledge covers various avenues of moral judgment which divide scholars and common people into groups. These groups formulate certain schools known by what these groups confess and publish among people. First, the religious groups were found, then the knowledge groups, and third, the setarian schools.
An example of the first was al-Mu’tazilah school, when they separate themselves in one corner of the Mosque, and Ikhwan al Safa school. The first was obviously observed by Muslims. Their circles was open to those who want to know about religion on logical grounds. The second school, however, was limited in number, and have overt activities. Both schools were and show religious thoughts in the light of brain using logical reasoning of the tradition of Islam.
The knowledge groups was scattered by individual thinkers, compound with others by their encyclopedic nature of knowledge.
The sectarian groups, follow their emotional guidelines and controlled by their ambition to have justice according to their status. Achievements of such groups was sometimes hidden, other times were shown in the presence of the ruler (Emir or Sultan or Khalifah.)
A moral sense is inborn in man and, through the ages, it has served as the common man’s standard of moral behavior, approving certain qualities and condemning others. While this instinctive faculty may vary from person to person, human conscience has consistently declared certain moral qualities to be good and others to be bad.
Justice, courage and truthfulness have always found praise, and history does not record any period worth the name in which falsehood, injustice, dishonesty and breach of trust have been praised; sympathy, compassion, loyalty and generosity have always been valued, while selfishness, cruelty, meanness and bigotry have never been approved of by society; men have always appreciated perseverance, determination and courage, but never impatience, fickleness, cowardice and stupidity. Dignity, restraint, politeness and friendliness have throughout the ages been counted virtues, whereas snobbery and rudeness have always been looked down upon. People with a sense of responsibility and devotion to duty have always won the highest regard, those who are incompetent, lazy and lacking in a sense of duty have never been looked upon with approval.
Similarly, in assessing the standards of good and bad in the collective behavior of society as a whole, only those societies have been considered worthy of honor which have possessed the virtues of organisation, discipline, mutual attention and compassion and which have established a social order based on justice, freedom and equality. Disorganisation, indiscipline, anarchy, disunity, injustice and social privilege have always been considered manifestations of decay and disintegration in a society. Robbery, murder, larceny, adultery and corruption have always been condemned. Slander and blackmail have never been considered healthy social activities, while service and care of the aged, helping one’s relatives, regard for neighbours, loyalty to friends, aiding the weak, the destitute and the orphans, and nursing the sick are qualities which have been highly valued since the dawn of civilisation.
Individuals who are honest, sincere and dependable, whose deeds match their words, who are content with their own rightful possessions, who are prompt in the discharge of their obligations to others, who live in peace and let others live in peace, and from whom nothing but good can be expected, have always formed the basis of any healthy human society.
These examples show that human moral standards are universal and have been well-known to mankind throughout the ages. Good and evil are not myths, but realities well understood by all. A sense of good and evil is inherent in the very nature of man. Hence in the terminology of the Qur’an good is called Ma’rif (a well-known thing) and evil munkar (an unknown thing); that is to say, good is known to be desirable and evil is known not to commend itself in any way. As the Qur’an says: Allah has revealed to human nature the consciousness and cognition of good and evil. (al-Shams 91: 8) www.arabamericanencyclopedia.com
إلى القراء والقارئات العرب في كل مكان
عرب يارسول الله ….. عرب !
لطفا… إذا أعجبكم هذا المقال فأرسلوه بالموبايل إلى أصحابكم وشاركوا في تنمية الأخلاق الإنسانية السليمة الداعية للسلام
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واجعلوا من الكتاب هدية لمن تحبون ، فوالله ما ألفت ولا كتبت ولا نشرت إلى لزيادة المعرفة بين العرب في المهاجر ولكن أكثر العرب لا يقرأون حتى المربين منهم والمربيات والأمراء منهم والأميرات ……….. واأسفاه… فمعظم الكتب تصلح لمناهج المدارس العربية والإسلامية في بلاد الغربة وبلاد الأصل …عتبي على المربين وعلى إدارات المدارس في المهاجر الذين لم يستفيدوا بعد من هذه الكتب، ونشكر بشدة أولئك الذين قرروا استعمال بعضها بل واستعملوها في مدارسهم .
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