Khalid bin al-Waleed in Islamic History شخصيات إسلامية : خالد بن الوليد


Khalid bin al-Waleed in Islamic History

Hasan Yahya Ph.ds: Professor of Comparative Sociology

The Arab American Encyclopedia-USA

Hasan Yahya, D.E. Ph.ds

Khalid bin Al-Waleed (592–642 A.D) is a well known in Islamic history as “The Sword of Allah” named  by the Prophet Muhammad, (pbuh). Khalid and Umar bin al-Khattab were cousins. According to al-Waqidi, Khalid bin al-Waleed was a victorious leader in battle especially at Uhud, against Muslims. After years of Muslim victory in many battles against Quraysh, the Prophet’s pilgrimage to Makkah made Khalid’s mind regarding his religious beliefs. He had never been deeply religious and was not unduly drawn towards the gods of the Kabah. He had always kept an open mind. Now he began to ponder deeply on religious matters, but did not share his thoughts with anyone. And then suddenly it flashed across his mind that Islam was the true faith. This happened about two months after the Prophet’s pilgrimage.

One night After Hudaibiyah treaty, Khalid took his armors, his weapons and his horse, and set out for Madinah. On the way he met two others travelling in the same direction: Amr bin Al Aas and Uthman bin Talha (son of the Quraysh standard bearer at Uhud) and there was mutual astonishment when they found that each was travelling to Madinah with the same purpose, for each had regarded the other two as bitter enemies of Islam! The three seekers arrived at Madinah on May 31, 629 (the 1st of Safar, 8 Hijri), and went to the house of the Prophet. Khalid entered first and made his submission. He was followed by Amr and then Uthman. All three were warmly welcomed by the Prophet; their past hostility was forgiven, so that they could now start with a clean sheet. Khalid and Amr bin Al Aas were the finest military minds of the time and their entry into Islam would spell victory for Muslim arms in the following decades.

image001Khalid won many  battles, for example, the Battle of Chains, the Battle of the River, the River of Blood Battle, the Conquest of Hira. However, the most famous battles were,  Daumat-ul-Jandal,  Mu’tah Battle, Marj Dabiq Battle, the Battle of Ajnadein and al-Yarmuk battles which was followed by Jerusalem surrender .

How he was called “the swords of Allah”?  Three months after his arrival at Madinah, Khalid got his chance to show what he could do as a soldier and a commander for the faith which he had just embraced. The Prophet had sent an envoy to the Ghassan,  Chieftain of Busra, with a letter inviting him to join Islam. While passing through Mutah this envoy was intercepted and killed by a local Ghassan chieftain forces. This was a heinous crime among the Arabs, for diplomatic envoys held traditional immunity from attack no matter how hostile a power they represented. The news of this outrage inflamed Madinah.

An expedition was immediately prepared to take punitive action against the Ghassan, and the Prophet appointed Zaid bin Harithah as the commander of the force. If he were killed, the command was to be taken over by Jafar bin Abi Talib (brother of Ali). If he were killed, the command would devolve upon Abdullah bin Rawahah. Having appointed these officers in the chain of command, the Prophet said, “If all three of these are killed, let the men select a commander from among themselves.”

AsafeerBC20141It was the second week of September 29 (the third week of Jamadi-ul-Awwal, 8 Hijri), when Mu’tah took place against Heraclius, the Eastern Roman Emperor armies. The three Muslim leaders were killed, and Khalid was elected to lead the battle which gave Khalid an opportunity to show his skill as an independent commander; and it gained him the title of the Sword of Allah. So when the Prophet –pbuh-heard the news of victory at Mu’tah, he said: “What an excellent slave of Allah: Khalid ibn al-Walid, the swords of Allah, one of unleashed against the unbelievers!”

After the death of Abu Bakr, Umar the second Caliph, appointed Abu Ubaidah Amir bin al-Jarrah instead of Khalid as the leader of armies. For that reason, Khalid took the orders and said: “I am only a solder in Islam, I do not fight for Umar, but for the God of Umar.”

Since Khalid was his finest general, the Caliph Abu Bakr, had made up his mind to use him to deal with Musailima, the lier,  after he had finished with the other enemies of Islam. Later on, Khalid was appointed to lead the armies to fight the Romans in what is called: “Al-Yarmuk Battle.” North of Jordan River. Where the Roman armies were defeated.

His genius thinking, when he was asked to cross the desert for the help of other Muslim Armies near Damascus. Khalid selected a shorter route to Syria which unconventionally passed though the Desert. He marched his army though the desert, where traditions tells that his soldiers marched for two days without a single drop of water, before reaching a pre-decided water source at an oasis. Khalid is said to have solved the water shortage issue using a Bedouin method. Camels were made to drink water after intentionally denying them water for a lengthy time period, encouraging the camels to drink a lot of water at one time. Camels have the ability to store water in their stomach which in turn could be obtained by slaughtering them when necessary. Muslim troops rode entirely on camels and this method became an effective one for the Muslim army.

On 22 August 634, Abu Bakr died, having made Umar, Khalid’s cousin, his successor. Umar’s first move was to relieve Khalid from supreme command of Muslim Forces and appoint Abu Ubaidah as the new commander in chief of the Islamic army. Umar was reported as saying:”I did not fire Khalid ibn al Waleed because I am angry with him or because of betrayal of trust or responsibility but the reason was just that I wanted people to know that it is Allah who gives victory”.  Khalid, gave a pledge of loyalty to the new caliph, and continued service as an ordinary commander under Abu Ubaidah. He is reported to have said: “If Abu Bakr is dead and Umar is Caliph, then we hear and obey“.

قصص أطفالOn 15 August, the Battle of Yarmouk was fought, it lasted for 6 days and ended in a devastating defeat for the Byzantines. The Battle of Yarmouk is considered to be one of the most decisive battles of history. It was a historic defeat that sealed the fate of Byzantium in the Levant, the magnitude of the defeat was so intense that Byzantine forces were unable to recover from it for some time. It left the whole of the Byzantine Empire vulnerable to the Muslim Arab invaders, who failed, however, in every attempt to exterminate it. The battle was the greatest battle ever fought on Syrian soil up to that point, and is believed to be the tactical marvel of Khalid.

As a result the Byzantine defeat in Yarmuk, Jerusalem city agreed to surrender, after four months Siege, Amr ibn al-Aas, one of the corps commanders, suggested that Khalid should send to the  Caliph Umar. Umar came and Jerusalem surrendered in April 637.

After retirement,  Khalid died on his bed. He  expressed the pain of this sadness through one last, anguished sentence: “ I fought in so many battles seeking martyrdom that there is no place in my body but have a stabbing scar by a spear, a sword or a dagger, and yet here I am, dying on my bed like an old camel dies. May the eyes of the cowards never sleep.” (1263 words) www.albahaspace.com

يرجى التكرم بعد قراءة هذه المقالة إذا وافقت هوى في نفوسكم أن تخبروا أصدقاءكم عن طريق الموبايلات أو وسائل الإتصال الإلكترونية الأخرى لتعم الفائدة من المعلومات فيها، وشكرا لكم.

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Special Thanks to Female and male Principles and teachers in USA, Great Britain,and EU for selecting some of the author’s publications (55 stories 4 Kids , Qandil Umm Hashim, Hay bin Yaqzan-Ibn Tufail, Shu’ara al Arab: Zuhayr bin Abi Salma and Ibn Zaydun: Andalus Poet) bringing up our children in Diaspora. I appreciate. Thank you!

 

Hasan Yahya is an Arab-Palestinian-American theorist, sociologist, philosopher, writer and historian. He’s a former professor of Comparative Sociology and Educational Administration at Michigan State University, Lansing Community and Jackson Community Colleges. He is the Board Editing member at International Humanities Studies (IHS) Journal (Jerusalem-Spain) and several other USA, journals. Dr. Yahya is the originator of Arab American Encyclopedia and Ihyaa al Turath al Arabi fil Mahjar-USA. His (270 plus) publication may be observed on Amazon and Kindle. To reach the writer: Email:askdryahya@yahoo.com

Dr. Yahya Credentials: Ph.D in Comparative Socioloy 1991, Michigan State University.Ph.D in Educational Administration, Michigan State Univ.(1988). M.A Psychology of Schools Conflict Management, Michigan State Univ.1983. Diploma M.A, Oriental Studies, St. Joseph Univ. Beirut, Lebanon. (1982) B.A Modern and Classical Arab Literature, (1976). Life Achievements: Publishing 260 plus Books and 1000 plus articles.

You may find the writer at:

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Thank you All….God Bless

Hasan Yahya On Amazon

هدايا الدكتور يحيى مجانا للقارئات والقراء العرب والمربين والمربيات وطلاب الجامعات

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يستطيع القراء قراءة واستعمال هذه الكتب كما يحبون مجانا بالضغط على العناوين باللون الأزرق

Dr. Yahya FREE Gifts to Readers

CoRT Presentation

Political Models in the World Presentation

منشورات وكتب بالعربية والانجليزية – أول ثلاثة أشهر لعام 2013

Diwan al QADAR, Shi’r ديوان القدر : شعر

قياسات الدكتور يحيى للبحوث النفسية والاجتماعية (غير منشور)

طرق التدريس الكلاسيكية والحديثة  Modern-Classical Teaching Methods

منشورات وكتب بالعربية والانجليزية – أول ثلاثة أشهر لعام 2013

قصيدة البردة للبوصيري

بلادي العربية _ كتاب تعليمي للأطفال

FBI STORM- Play in English

مسرحية مترجمة : مسرحية الدخيل باللغتين

كتب دينية حول الأخلاق العربية والإسلامية

حلقة / 1

حلقة / 2

حلقة / 3

حلقة / 4

حلقة / 5

حلقة / 6

حلقة / 7

وتعتبر هذه الكتب ضمن صدقة جارية أو علم ينتفع به ، استنادا للأثر الكريم ، والسلام عليكم وكل عام وأنتم بخير

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About Arab American Encyclopedia-USA - Hasan Yahya

HASAN YAHYA was born at a small village called Majdal-YaFa (Majdal Sadiq) in Mandate Palestine (1944). He migrated as a refugee to Mes-ha, a village east of Kufr Qasim, west of Nablus (in the West Bank), then moved with his family to Zarka, 25 km north of Amman – Jordan. He finished the high school at Zarka Secondary School, 1963. He was appointed as a teacher in the same year. Studied Law first at Damascus University, then B.A from Lebanon University in Arabic literature and Eastern Cultures (1975). He moved to Kuwait. Where he got married in 1967. He was working at Kuwait Television, taught at bilingual School, and Kuwait University. In 1982, Hasan left to the United States to continue his education at Michigan State University. He got the Master Degree in 1983, the Ph.D degree in 1988 in Education (Psychology of Administration ). In 1991, He obtained his post degree in Social research, the result was a second Ph.D degree in Comparative sociology-Social Psychology. He was the only Arab student who enrolled ever to pursue two simultaneous Ph.D programs from Michigan State University and fulfill their requirements perfectly. Professor Yahya employment history began as a supervisor of a joint project to rehabilitate Youth (inmates out of prison) by Michigan State University and Intermediate School Districts. Worked also as a Teacher Assistant and lecturer in the same university. He was offered a position at Lansing Community College as well as Jackson Community College where he was assistant professor, then associate professor, then full professor (1991-2006). He taught Sociology, psychology, education, criminology and research methods. He supervised 19 Master and Ph.D candidates on various personal, economic psychological and social development topics. Professor Yahya published Hundreds (1000 Plus on this site) of articles and research reports in local, regional, and international journals. His interest covers local, regional and global conflicts. He also authored, translated, edited and published over 280 plus books in several languages, in almost all fields especial education, sociology and psychology. These books can be found on Amazon and Kindle. He also, was a visiting professor at Eastern Michigan University to give Research Methods and Conflict Management courses. Prof. Yahya accepted an offer to join Zayed University Faculty Team in 1998, then he served as the Head of Education and Psychology Department at Ajman University of Science and Technology 2001-04. Dr. Yahya established several institutes in Diaspora, the Arab American Encyclopedia, Ihyaa al Turath al Arabi Project, (Revival of Arab Heritage in Diaspora.Recently he was nominated for honorary committee member for the Union of Arab and Muslim Writers in America. He was affiliated with sociological associations and was a member of the Association of Muslim Social Scientists (AMSS) at USA. Social Activities and Community Participation: Dr. Yahya was a national figure on Diversity and Islamic Issues in the United States, with special attention to Race Relations and Psychology of Assimilation (generations 1,2 &3). He was invited as a public speaker to many TV shows and interviews in many countries. His philosophy includes enhancing knowledge to appreciate the others, and to compromise with others in order to live peacefully with others. This philosophy was the backgrounds of his theory, called “ Theory C. of Conflict Management”. And developed later to a Science of Cultural Normalization under the title: “Crescentology. The results of such theory will lead to world peace depends on a global Knowledge, Understanding, appreciation, and Compromising (KUAC)” Recently Prof. Yahya started "Publish your book FREE Project", to serve young Arab Writers. Dr. Yahya accepted the offer to be the chief editor of the International Humanities Studies Journal -I-H-S-Jerusalem, since July 2014. (Revised Sept. 2014) ولد الدكتور حسن عبدالقادر يحيى في مجدل يابا من أعمال يافا – فلسطين عام 1944. تلقى علومه الابتدائية في مدرسة بديا الأميرية في الضفة الغربية أيام احتوائها ضمن المملكة الأدردنية الهاشمية وتخرج في جامعة بيروت حاملاً الإجازة في اللغة العربية وآدابها، ودبلوم التأهيل التربوي من كلية القديس يوسف بلبنان، ودبلوم الدراسات العليا (الماجستير) ودكتوراة في الإدارة التربوية من جامعة ولاية ميشيغان بالولايات المتحدة عام 1988، وشهادة الدكتوراه في علم الاجتماع المقارن من الجامعة نفسها عام 1991. عمل في التدريس والصحافة الأدبية. أديب وشاعر وقاص ، ,كما عمل في تلفزيون الكويت الرسمي كمعد ومنسق برامج ثم اتجه إلى الكتابة والتأليف في علوم كثيرة تخص علمي النفس والاجتماع والتنمية البشرية ، والتغير الاجتماعي والسكان وألف ونشر العديد من المقالات (1000 +) والكتب باللغتين العربية والإنجليزية (أكثر من 330 كتابا) ، منها ست مجموعات قصصية وست كتب للأطفال ، وأربع دواوين شعرية باللغتين أيضا. وعدد من كتب التراث في الشعر والأدب والأخلاق الإسلامية والتربية والأديان . وهو الآن أستاذ متقاعد في جامعة ولاية ميشيغان. . وكان عضوا سابقا في جمعية العلماء المسلمين في أمريكا . وجمعية علماء الاجتماع الأمريكية - ميشيغان، وهو مؤسس الموسوعة العربية الأمريكية في الولايات المتحدة ضمن مشروع إحياء التراث العربي في بلاد المهجرز كما تم ترشيحه مؤخرا ليكون عضو مجلس التحرير لمجلة الدراسات الإنسانية العالمية. وقد قبل أن يتسلم رئاسة تحريرها اعتبارا من نهاية يونيو 2014 His email: askdryahya@yahoo.com Thank you!
This entry was posted in Arab Affairs, Arab American Encyclopedia, Arab flags, Arab Literature, Arab Manifesto, Arab Personalilities, Arab Philosophy, Decision Making, History, Ibn Khaldun ابن خلدون،, Improving skills, Knowledge Base, Legends, Muslim Affairs-Arab, Palestinian Interests, Research Methods, School Curriculum, Science, Short stories, Sociology, هموم اللغة العربية ، إحياء التراث العربي في المهجر، and tagged , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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