Two Minutes with Dr. Yahya: Alexander, the Great.


Two Minutes with Dr. Yahya: Alexander,  the Great.

Hasan Yahya Ph.ds: Professor of Comparative Sociology

The Arab American Encyclopedia-USA

Alexander,  was known as Alexander of Macedon (356-323 BC), one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He’s also known as Alexander the Macedonian the king of Macedonia that conquered the Persian empire and annexed it to Macedonia, He is the first king to be called “the Great.”

He was born in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia and was the son of Philip II, King of Macedonia, and of Olympia, his wife,  a princess of Epirus., Philip and Olympia wanted nothing less than the best for their son, so when he was 13, his parents hired Aristotle to be his personal tutor.

Alexander was trained together with other children of the nobility at Aristotles Nyphaeon. It is here that Alexander met Hephastion, his future best friend and alter ego. Aristotle gave Alexander a thorough training in rhetoric and literature and stimulated his interest in science, medicine, and philosophy, all of which became of the utmost importance for Alexander in his later life.

Alexander,  later known as the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. In later years, he was  inspiration for conquerors such as Hannibal the Carthaginian, the Romans Pompey and Caesar, and Napoleon in the eighteenth century.  After his father was assassinated,  in 336 BC, his son  became the king.

In early 332 BC, Alexander sent general Parmenio to occupy the Syrian cities and himself marched down the Phoenician coast where he received the surrender of all major cities except the island city of Tyre which refused to grant him access to sacrifice at the temple of the native Phoenician god.  Alexander continued marching south toward Egypt but was again held up by resistance at Gaza.  The Macedonians put the city under a siege which lasted two months, after which the scenario of Tyre was repeated.  With the fall of Gaza, the whole Eastern Mediterranean coast was now secured and firmly in the hands of the Macedonians.

Alexander entered Egypt in 331 BC. When he arrived, he was welcomed, and he ordered a city to be designed and founded in his name at the mouth of the river Nile. Alexandria would become one of the major cultural centers in the Mediterranean world in the following centuries.

The greatest of Alexander’s battles in India was against Porus, one of the most powerful Indian leaders, at the river Hydaspes. On July 326 BC, Alexander’s army crossed the heavily defended river in dramatic fashion during a violent thunderstorm to meet Porus’ forces. The Indians were defeated in a fierce battle, even though they fought with elephants, which the Macedonians had never before seen. Alexander captured Porus and, like the other local rulers he had defeated, allowed him to continue to govern his territory. Alexander even subdued an independent province and granted it to Porus as a gift.

In Persia, in the spring of 324, Alexander held a great victory celebration at Susa. He married Roxane, a Persian, and 80 close associates married Iranian noblewomen. In addition, he legitimized previous so-called marriages between soldiers and native women and gave them rich wedding gifts, no doubt to encourage such unions.

In India, however,  Alexander’s troops refused to go any further, and he turned back. But a lot of the soldiers died on the way back, and soon afterwards, in 323 BC., Alexander himself died of a fever, in Babylon. He was 33 years old. After he died he left no sons old enough to rule, and so his kingdom was split up among his generals. There were three main parts: One was Egypt, which was ruled by a man named Ptolemy. The second was Seleucia (modern day Syria, Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan), which was ruled by a man named Seleucus, and the third was Macedon and Greece.

Although the three kingdoms often fought each other, still the Hellenistic period was one of prosperity and learning. A great university was founded at Alexandria, in Egypt. The philosopher Aristotle  worked in Athens. Scientists and philosophers (all men) visited back and forth between India and Greece. The combination of the knowledge of West Asia and India with that of the Greeks led to great achievements in science, Philosophy and art. (714 words) www.askdryahya.com

From: Personalities I Admire Series, by the author.

 إلى القراء والقارئات العرب في كل مكان

عرب يارسول الله ….. عرب !

لطفا… إذا أعجبكم هذا المقال فأرسلوه بالموبايل إلى أصحابكم وشاركوا في تنمية الأخلاق الإنسانية السليمة الداعية للسلام

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أقرأوا للكاتب بعضا من 250 كتابا هنا أو هنا وشكرا .والله يرعاكم .

وعرب يارسول الله ….. عرب !

اجعلوا من الكتاب هدية لمن تحبون ، فوالله ما ألفت ولا كتبت ولا نشرت إلى لزيادة المعرفة بين العرب في المهاجر ولكن أكثر العرب لا يقرأون حتى المربين منهم والمربيات والأمراء منهم والأميرات ……….. واأسفاه… فمعظم الكتب تصلح لمناهج المدارس العربية والإسلامية في بلاد الغربة وبلاد الأصل …عتبي على المربين وعلى إدارات المدارس في المهاجر الذين لم يستفيدوا بعد من هذه الكتب، ونشكر بشدة أولئك الذين قرروا استعمال بعضها بل واستعملوها في مدارسهم .

Arab American Encyclopedia-AAE – Read also 1000 plus articles for the Arab Palestinian Writer on HasanYahyaOnWordPress.com site Thank You!

ويمكن الاتصال بالدكتور حسن يحيى في حالات الدعوات وإلقاء المحاضرات على هذ الإيميل

E-Mail: drhasanyahya@aol.com

You may contact the author using this site. …. Thank you!

1029 Coolidge Rd, Michigan 48912, USA وعنوانه البريدي هو

والسلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته  God Bless Us All

About Arab American Encyclopedia-USA - Hasan Yahya

HASAN YAHYA was born at a small village called Majdal-YaFa (Majdal Sadiq) in Mandate Palestine (1944). He migrated as a refugee to Mes-ha, a village east of Kufr Qasim, west of Nablus (in the West Bank), then moved with his family to Zarka, 25 km north of Amman – Jordan. He finished the high school at Zarka Secondary School, 1963. He was appointed as a teacher in the same year. Studied Law first at Damascus University, then B.A from Lebanon University in Arabic literature and Eastern Cultures (1975). He moved to Kuwait. Where he got married in 1967. He was working at Kuwait Television, taught at bilingual School, and Kuwait University. In 1982, Hasan left to the United States to continue his education at Michigan State University. He got the Master Degree in 1983, the Ph.D degree in 1988 in Education (Psychology of Administration ). In 1991, He obtained his post degree in Social research, the result was a second Ph.D degree in Comparative sociology-Social Psychology. He was the only Arab student who enrolled ever to pursue two simultaneous Ph.D programs from Michigan State University and fulfill their requirements perfectly. Professor Yahya employment history began as a supervisor of a joint project to rehabilitate Youth (inmates out of prison) by Michigan State University and Intermediate School Districts. Worked also as a Teacher Assistant and lecturer in the same university. He was offered a position at Lansing Community College as well as Jackson Community College where he was assistant professor, then associate professor, then full professor (1991-2006). He taught Sociology, psychology, education, criminology and research methods. He supervised 19 Master and Ph.D candidates on various personal, economic psychological and social development topics. Professor Yahya published Hundreds (1000 Plus on this site) of articles and research reports in local, regional, and international journals. His interest covers local, regional and global conflicts. He also authored, translated, edited and published over 280 plus books in several languages, in almost all fields especial education, sociology and psychology. These books can be found on Amazon and Kindle. He also, was a visiting professor at Eastern Michigan University to give Research Methods and Conflict Management courses. Prof. Yahya accepted an offer to join Zayed University Faculty Team in 1998, then he served as the Head of Education and Psychology Department at Ajman University of Science and Technology 2001-04. Dr. Yahya established several institutes in Diaspora, the Arab American Encyclopedia, Ihyaa al Turath al Arabi Project, (Revival of Arab Heritage in Diaspora.Recently he was nominated for honorary committee member for the Union of Arab and Muslim Writers in America. He was affiliated with sociological associations and was a member of the Association of Muslim Social Scientists (AMSS) at USA. Social Activities and Community Participation: Dr. Yahya was a national figure on Diversity and Islamic Issues in the United States, with special attention to Race Relations and Psychology of Assimilation (generations 1,2 &3). He was invited as a public speaker to many TV shows and interviews in many countries. His philosophy includes enhancing knowledge to appreciate the others, and to compromise with others in order to live peacefully with others. This philosophy was the backgrounds of his theory, called “ Theory C. of Conflict Management”. And developed later to a Science of Cultural Normalization under the title: “Crescentology. The results of such theory will lead to world peace depends on a global Knowledge, Understanding, appreciation, and Compromising (KUAC)” Recently Prof. Yahya started "Publish your book FREE Project", to serve young Arab Writers. Dr. Yahya accepted the offer to be the chief editor of the International Humanities Studies Journal -I-H-S-Jerusalem, since July 2014. (Revised Sept. 2014) ولد الدكتور حسن عبدالقادر يحيى في مجدل يابا من أعمال يافا – فلسطين عام 1944. تلقى علومه الابتدائية في مدرسة بديا الأميرية في الضفة الغربية أيام احتوائها ضمن المملكة الأدردنية الهاشمية وتخرج في جامعة بيروت حاملاً الإجازة في اللغة العربية وآدابها، ودبلوم التأهيل التربوي من كلية القديس يوسف بلبنان، ودبلوم الدراسات العليا (الماجستير) ودكتوراة في الإدارة التربوية من جامعة ولاية ميشيغان بالولايات المتحدة عام 1988، وشهادة الدكتوراه في علم الاجتماع المقارن من الجامعة نفسها عام 1991. عمل في التدريس والصحافة الأدبية. أديب وشاعر وقاص ، ,كما عمل في تلفزيون الكويت الرسمي كمعد ومنسق برامج ثم اتجه إلى الكتابة والتأليف في علوم كثيرة تخص علمي النفس والاجتماع والتنمية البشرية ، والتغير الاجتماعي والسكان وألف ونشر العديد من المقالات (1000 +) والكتب باللغتين العربية والإنجليزية (أكثر من 330 كتابا) ، منها ست مجموعات قصصية وست كتب للأطفال ، وأربع دواوين شعرية باللغتين أيضا. وعدد من كتب التراث في الشعر والأدب والأخلاق الإسلامية والتربية والأديان . وهو الآن أستاذ متقاعد في جامعة ولاية ميشيغان. . وكان عضوا سابقا في جمعية العلماء المسلمين في أمريكا . وجمعية علماء الاجتماع الأمريكية - ميشيغان، وهو مؤسس الموسوعة العربية الأمريكية في الولايات المتحدة ضمن مشروع إحياء التراث العربي في بلاد المهجرز كما تم ترشيحه مؤخرا ليكون عضو مجلس التحرير لمجلة الدراسات الإنسانية العالمية. وقد قبل أن يتسلم رئاسة تحريرها اعتبارا من نهاية يونيو 2014 His email: askdryahya@yahoo.com Thank you!
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