Two Minutes with Dr. Yahya: Alexander, the Great.
Hasan Yahya Ph.ds: Professor of Comparative Sociology
Alexander, was known as Alexander of Macedon (356-323 BC), one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He’s also known as Alexander the Macedonian the king of Macedonia that conquered the Persian empire and annexed it to Macedonia, He is the first king to be called “the Great.”
He was born in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia and was the son of Philip II, King of Macedonia, and of Olympia, his wife, a princess of Epirus., Philip and Olympia wanted nothing less than the best for their son, so when he was 13, his parents hired Aristotle to be his personal tutor.
Alexander was trained together with other children of the nobility at Aristotles Nyphaeon. It is here that Alexander met Hephastion, his future best friend and alter ego. Aristotle gave Alexander a thorough training in rhetoric and literature and stimulated his interest in science, medicine, and philosophy, all of which became of the utmost importance for Alexander in his later life.
Alexander, later known as the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. In later years, he was inspiration for conquerors such as Hannibal the Carthaginian, the Romans Pompey and Caesar, and Napoleon in the eighteenth century. After his father was assassinated, in 336 BC, his son became the king.
In early 332 BC, Alexander sent general Parmenio to occupy the Syrian cities and himself marched down the Phoenician coast where he received the surrender of all major cities except the island city of Tyre which refused to grant him access to sacrifice at the temple of the native Phoenician god. Alexander continued marching south toward Egypt but was again held up by resistance at Gaza. The Macedonians put the city under a siege which lasted two months, after which the scenario of Tyre was repeated. With the fall of Gaza, the whole Eastern Mediterranean coast was now secured and firmly in the hands of the Macedonians.
Alexander entered Egypt in 331 BC. When he arrived, he was welcomed, and he ordered a city to be designed and founded in his name at the mouth of the river Nile. Alexandria would become one of the major cultural centers in the Mediterranean world in the following centuries.
The greatest of Alexander’s battles in India was against Porus, one of the most powerful Indian leaders, at the river Hydaspes. On July 326 BC, Alexander’s army crossed the heavily defended river in dramatic fashion during a violent thunderstorm to meet Porus’ forces. The Indians were defeated in a fierce battle, even though they fought with elephants, which the Macedonians had never before seen. Alexander captured Porus and, like the other local rulers he had defeated, allowed him to continue to govern his territory. Alexander even subdued an independent province and granted it to Porus as a gift.
In Persia, in the spring of 324, Alexander held a great victory celebration at Susa. He married Roxane, a Persian, and 80 close associates married Iranian noblewomen. In addition, he legitimized previous so-called marriages between soldiers and native women and gave them rich wedding gifts, no doubt to encourage such unions.
In India, however, Alexander’s troops refused to go any further, and he turned back. But a lot of the soldiers died on the way back, and soon afterwards, in 323 BC., Alexander himself died of a fever, in Babylon. He was 33 years old. After he died he left no sons old enough to rule, and so his kingdom was split up among his generals. There were three main parts: One was Egypt, which was ruled by a man named Ptolemy. The second was Seleucia (modern day Syria, Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan), which was ruled by a man named Seleucus, and the third was Macedon and Greece.
Although the three kingdoms often fought each other, still the Hellenistic period was one of prosperity and learning. A great university was founded at Alexandria, in Egypt. The philosopher Aristotle worked in Athens. Scientists and philosophers (all men) visited back and forth between India and Greece. The combination of the knowledge of West Asia and India with that of the Greeks led to great achievements in science, Philosophy and art. (714 words) www.askdryahya.com
From: Personalities I Admire Series, by the author.
إلى القراء والقارئات العرب في كل مكان
عرب يارسول الله ….. عرب !
لطفا… إذا أعجبكم هذا المقال فأرسلوه بالموبايل إلى أصحابكم وشاركوا في تنمية الأخلاق الإنسانية السليمة الداعية للسلام
*** Note for readers: If you like this, please MOBILE it to friends and love ones
وعرب يارسول الله ….. عرب !
اجعلوا من الكتاب هدية لمن تحبون ، فوالله ما ألفت ولا كتبت ولا نشرت إلى لزيادة المعرفة بين العرب في المهاجر ولكن أكثر العرب لا يقرأون حتى المربين منهم والمربيات والأمراء منهم والأميرات ……….. واأسفاه… فمعظم الكتب تصلح لمناهج المدارس العربية والإسلامية في بلاد الغربة وبلاد الأصل …عتبي على المربين وعلى إدارات المدارس في المهاجر الذين لم يستفيدوا بعد من هذه الكتب، ونشكر بشدة أولئك الذين قرروا استعمال بعضها بل واستعملوها في مدارسهم .
ويمكن الاتصال بالدكتور حسن يحيى في حالات الدعوات وإلقاء المحاضرات على هذ الإيميل
You may contact the author using this site. …. Thank you!
1029 Coolidge Rd, Michigan 48912, USA وعنوانه البريدي هو
والسلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته God Bless Us All