ModernizationTheory: Two Minutes w/Hayy bin Yaqthan


 

 

Modernization Theory: Two Minutes w/Hayy bin Yaqthan

Originally Published in Encyclopedia of Sociology

Posted by: Arab American Encyclopedia-AAE-USA-Hasan Yahya

We post this professional article in the process of describing Theories of Social Change. for the purpose of benefiting students in social sciences, a series especially provided to those with major on Sociology and anthropology. We start this series  with Modernization Theory, originally published in the Encyclopedia of Sociology by : J. Michael Armer and John Katsillts. The editor-in-chief of the leading webpage on sociology as an Insight to Human Social Relations,  describes the purpose of the Encyclopedia. Which Arab American Encyclopedia strongly share, He wrote:

learnsoc.org provides nearly all information associated to the discipline of Sociology. This website is developed chiefly for the reason that there are only a limited websites based on Sociology. Unfortunately, they also lack considerable data. Books of countless famous Sociologists can be effortlessly found in just about every single university library. But, to the degree that I know, the present-day generation finds it easier/cooler to surf the internet to gain info, thereby expanding their knowledge with the assistance of relevant websites.”(EOS)

The Editor-in-chief added his request to write comments about the website to help him to enhance information and data of the website to be more useful for the users. contact email: info@learnsoc.org –  (AAE)

The Article: By: J. Michael Armer and John Katsillts

Modernization theory is a description and explanation of the processes of transformation from traditional or underdeveloped societies to modern societies. In the words of one of the major proponents, ‘‘Historically, modernization is the process of change towards those types of social, economic, and political systems that have developed in Western Europe and North America from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth and have then spread to other European countries and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the South American, Asian, and African continents’’ (Eisenstadt 1966, p. 1). Modernization theory has been one of the major perspectives in the sociology of national development and underdevelopment since the 1950s. Primary  attention has focused on ways in which past and present premodern societies become modern (i.e., Westernized) through processes of economic growth and change in social, political, and cultural structures.

In general, modernization theorists are concerned with economic growth within societies as indicated, for example, by measures of gross national product. Mechanization or industrialization are ingredients in the process of economic growth. Modernization theorists study the social, political, and cultural consequences of economic growth and the conditions that are important for industrialization and economic growth to occur. Indeed, a degree of circularity often characterizes discussions of social and economic change involved in modernization processes because of the notion, embedded in most modernization theories, of the functional compatibility of component parts. The theoretical assumptions of modernization theories will be elaborated later.

It should be noted at the outset that the sociological concept of modernization does not refer simply to becoming current or ‘‘up to date’’ but rather specifies  particular contents and processes of societal changes in the course of national development. Also, modernization theories of development do not necessarily bear any relationship to more recent philosophical concepts of ‘‘modernity’’ and ‘‘postmodernity.’’ Modernity in philosophical and epistemological discussions refers to the perspective that there is one true descriptive and explanatory model that reflects the actual world. Postmodernity is the stance that no single true description and explanation of reality exists but rather that knowledge, ideology, and science itself are based on subjective understandings of an entirely relational nature. While their philosophical underpinnings place most modernization theories of development into the ‘‘modern’’ rather than the ‘‘postmodern’’ context, these separate uses of the term modernity should not be confused.

LogicBCAlso, modernization, industrialization, and development are often used interchangeably but in fact refer to distinguishable phenomena. Industrialization is a narrower term than modernization, while development is more general. Industrialization involves the use of inanimate sources of power to mechanize production, and it involves increases in manufacturing, wage labor, income levels, and occupational diversification. It may or may not be present where there is political, social, or cultural modernization, and, conversely, it may exist in the absence of other aspects of modernization. Development (like industrialization) implies economic growth, but not necessarily through transformation from the predominance of primary production to manufacturing, and not necessarily as characterized by modernization theory. For example, while modernization theorists may define development mainly in terms of economic output per capita, other theorists may be more concerned about development of autonomous productive capacity, equitable distribution of wealth, or meeting basic human needs. Also, while modernization theories generally envision democratic and capitalist institutions or secularization of belief systems as components of modern society, other development perspectives may not. Indeed, dependency theorists even talk about the ‘‘development of underdevelopment’’ (Frank 1966).

Each of the social science disciplines pays particular attention to the determinants of modern structures within its realm (social, political, economic) and gives greater importance to structures or institutions within its realm for explaining other developments in society. Emphasis here is given to sociological modernization theory.

Although there are many versions of modernization theory, major implicit or explicit tenets are that

(1) societies develop through a series of evolutionary stages;

(2) these stages are based on different degrees and patterns of social differentiation and reintegration of structural and cultural components that are functionally compatible for the maintenance of society;

(3) contemporary developing societies are at a premodern stage of evolution and they eventually will achieve economic growth and will take on the social, political, and economic features of western European and North American societies which have progressed to the highest stage of social evolutionary development;

(4) this modernization will result as complex Western technology is imported and traditional
structural and cultural features incompatible with such development are overcome.

At its core modernization theory suggests that advanced industrial technology produces not only economic growth in developing societies but also other structural and cultural changes. The common characteristics that societies tend to develop as they become modern may differ from one version of modernization theory to another, but, in general, all assume that institutional structures and individual activities become more highly specialized, differentiated, and integrated into social, political, and economic forms characteristic of advanced Western societies.

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For example, in the social realm, modern societies are characterized by high levels of urbanization, literacy, research, health care, secularization, bureaucracy, mass media, and transportation facilities. Kinship ties are weaker, and nuclear conjugal family systems prevail. Birthrates and death rates are lower, and life expectancy is relatively longer. In the political realm, the society becomes more participatory in decision-making processes, and typical institutions include universal suffrage, political parties, a civil service bureaucracy, and parliaments. Traditional sources of authority are weaker as bureaucratic institutions assume responsibility and power. In the economic realm, there is more industrialization, technical upgrading of production, replacement of exchange economies with extensive money markets, increased division of labor, growth of infrastructure and commercial facilities, and the development of large-scale markets. Associated with these structural changes are cultural changes in role relations and personality variables. Social relations are more bureaucratic, social mobility increases, and status relations are based less on such ascriptive criteria as age, gender, or ethnicity and more on meritocratic criteria. There is a shift from relations based on tradition and loyalty to those based on rational exchange, competence, and other universally applied criteria. People are more receptive to change, more interested in the future, more achievement-oriented, more concerned with the rights of individuals, and less fatalistic.

Underlying the description of social features and changes that are thought to characterize modern urban industrial societies are theoretical assumptions and mechanisms to explain the shift from traditional to modern societal types.

These explanatory systems draw upon the dominant theoretical perspectives in the 1950s and 1960s, growing out of classical evolutionary, diffusion, and structural-functionalist theories.

The evolutionary perspective, stemming from Spencer, Durkheim, and other nineteenth-century theorists, contributed the notion that societies evolve from lower to higher forms and progress from simple and undifferentiated to more complex types. Western industrial society is seen as superior to preindustrial society to the extent that it has progressed through specialization to more effective ways of performing societal functions.

Diffusionists added the ideas that cultural patterns associated with modern society could be transferred via social interaction (trade, war, travelers, media, etc.) and that there may be several paths to development rather than linear evolution. Structural functionalists (Parsons 1951; Hoselitz 1960; Levy 1966) emphasized the idea that societies are integrated wholes composed of functionally compatible institutions and roles, and that societies progress from one increasingly complex and efficient social system to another. This contributed to the notion that internal social and cultural factors are important determinants or obstacles of economic change.

image002Research by Smelser (1969) draws on all three traditions in describing modernization of society through processes of social differentiation, disturbances, and reintegration. In a manner similar to other conceptions of modernization, Smelser emphasizes four major changes: from simple to complex technology, from subsistence farming to commercial agriculture, from rural to urban populations, and, most important, from animal and human power to inanimate power and industrialization.

Parsons’s later theoretical work (1964) also combines these perspectives in a neo-evolutionist modernization theory that treats societies as selfregulated structural functional wholes in which the main processes of change are social differentiation and the discovery (or acquisition through diffusion) of certain ‘‘evolutionary universals’’ such as bureaucratic organizations and money markets. These, in turn, increase the adaptive capacity of the society by providing more efficient social arrangements and often lead to a system of universalistic norms, ‘‘which, more than the industrial revolution itself, ushered in the modern era of social evolution’’ (Parsons 1964, p. 361). A similar neoevolutionist social differentiation theory of modernization is provided by Eisenstadt (1970).

Another early influence on modernization theory was Weber’s work on the Protestant ethic. This work stressed the influence of cultural values on the entrepreneurial behavior of individuals and the rise of capitalism. Contemporary theorists in the Weberian tradition include Lerner, McClelland, Inkeles, and Rostow. Lerner’s (1958) empirical studies in several Middle Eastern societies identified empathy, the capacity to take the perspective of others, as a product of media, literacy, and urbanization and as a vital ingredient in producing rational individual behavior conducive to societal development. McClelland (1961) felt that prevalence of individuals with the psychological trait of high ‘‘need for achievement’’ was the key to entrepreneurial activity and modernization of society. In a similar vein, Inkeles and Smith (1974) used interview data from six societies to generate a set of personality traits by which they defined ‘‘modern man.’’ They felt that the prevalence of individual modernity in society was determined by such factors as education and factory experience and that individual modernity contributed to the modernization of society. Finally, Rostow’s (1960) well-known theory of the stages of economic growth, which he derived from studying Western economic development, emphasized the importance of new values and ideas favoring economic progress along with education, entrepreneurship, and certain other institutions as conditions for societies to ‘‘take off’’ into self-sustained economic growth.

All of these versions of modernization theory depict a gradual and more or less natural transition from ‘‘traditional’’ social structures to ‘‘modern’’ social structures characteristic of Western European and North American societies. More specifically, these theories tend to share to one degree or another the views that

(1) modern people, values, institutions, and societies are similar to those found in the industrialized West, that is, the direction of change tends to replicate that which had already occurred in Western industrial societies;

(2) tradition is opposite to and incompatible with modernity;

(3) the causes of delayed economic and social development (i.e., underdevelopment) are to be found within the traditional society;

(4) the mechanisms of economic development also come primarily from within societies rather than from factors outside of the society; and

(5) these internal factors (in addition to industrial development) tend to involve social structures, cultural institutions, or personality types.

In keeping with this orientation, empirical studies of sociological modernization tend to deal with the internal effects of industrialization or other economic developments on traditional social institutions or with the social, political, and cultural conditions that facilitate or impede economic growth within traditional or less-developed societies.

Examples might include research on the impact of factory production and employment on traditional family relations or the effects of an indigenous land tenure system on the introduction of cash crop farming in society.

image002Even though modernization theory since the 1960s has been dominated by and sometimes equated with Parsons’s neo-evolutionary theory, it is clear that there is no single modernization theory but rather an assortment of related theories and perspectives. In addition to those mentioned, other important contributors of theoretical variants include Hagan (1962), Berger, Berger, and Kellner (1973), Bendix (1964), Moore (1967), Tiryakian (1985), and Nolan and Lenski (1999). Useful reviews include Harrison (1988), Harper (1993), and Jaffee (1998).

Since the 1960s, many critiques of modernization theory and the emergence of competing theories of development have eroded support for modernization theory. Foremost among these are dependency, world systems, and neo-Marxist theories, all of which criticize the ethnocentricity of the modernization concept and the bias in favor of dominant capitalist interests. The focus of these theories is on explaining the contemporary underdevelopment of Third World countries or regions of the world in terms of colonization, imperialist interference, and neocolonial exploitation of developing countries since their gaining of independence. In these counterperspectives, both development and underdevelopment are viewed as part of the same process by which certain ‘‘center’’ countries or regions become economically advanced and powerful at the expense of other ‘‘periphery’’ areas. Rather than explaining development and underdevelopment by the presence or absence of certain internal institutions or personalities, these alternative theories argue that both result from unequal exchange relations and coalitions of interests associated with the structural position of societies in the global economy. Rather than interpreting underdeveloped societies as traditional or archaic, both underdeveloped and developed societies are contemporary but asymmetrically linked parts of capitalist expansion. Both are relatively ‘‘modern’’ phenomena.

Attention to modernization theory in sociology has declined as a result of the theoretical and empirical weaknesses raised especially during the 1970s. Nevertheless, it is still the dominant perspective among government officials and international agencies concerned with third world development. Hoogvelt has noted its influence on development policies as follows:

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Because modernisation theories have viewed the total transformation, that is westernisation, of developing countries to be an inescapable outcome of successful diffusion of the Western economic /technological complex, by methodological reversal it is argued that a reorganization of existing social and cultural as well as political patterns in anticipation of their compatibility with the diffused Western economic/ technological complex may in fact facilitate the very process of this diffusion itself. This monumental theoretical error—which to be fair was not always committed by the theorists themselves—has in fact been made and continues to be made by modernisation policy-makers such as those employed by Western government, U.N. organizations, the World Bank, and so forth. (1978, pp. 60–61)

Thus, various indicators of social, political, and cultural development (such as degree of urbanization, high literacy rates, political democracy, free enterprise, secularization, birth control, etc.) have frequently been promoted as ‘‘conditions’’ for development.

image001Interestingly, as modern structures and institutions have spread around the world and created economic, political, social, and cultural linkages, an awareness of global interdependence and of the ecological consequences of industrial development and modern lifestyles has grown. It is now clear that finite natural resources and the nature of the global ecosystem could not sustain worldwide modern conditions and practices of European and North American societies even if modernization theory assumptions of evolutionary national development were correct. Thus, new visions and interpretations of national and global development have already begun to replace classical modernization theory.

Some selected publications readers may wish to consult on this topic include Billet (1993), Inglehart (1997). McMichael (1996), Roberts and Hite (1999), Roxborough (1988), and Scott (1995).

image003

References

  • Bendix, Reinhold 1964 Nation-Building and Citizenship: Studies of Our Changing Social Order. New York: John Wiley.
  • Berger, Peter L., Brigitte Berger, and Hansfried Kellner 1973 The Homeless Mind: Modernization and Consciousness. New York: Vintage.
  • Billet, Bret L 1993 Modernization Theory and Economic Development: Discontent in the Developing World. Westport, Conn: Praeger.
  • Eisenstadt, S. N. 1966 Modernization: Protest and Change. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
  • ——— 1970 ‘‘Social Change and Development.’’ In S. N. Eisenstadt, ed., Readings in Social Evolution and Development. Oxford: Pergamon.
  • Frank, Andre Gunder 1966 ‘‘The Development of Underdevelopment.’’ Monthly Review 18(4):17–31.
  • Hagen, Everett E. 1962 On the Theory of Social Change. Homewood, Ill.: Dorsey.
  • Harper, Charles L. 1993 Exploring Social Change, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
  • Harrison, David 1988 The Sociology of Modernization and Development. London: Unwin Hyman.
  • Hoogvelt, Ankie M. M. 1978 The Sociology of Developing Societies, 2nd ed. London: Macmillan.
  • Hoselitz, Berthold F. 1960 Sociological Aspects of Economic Growth. New York: Free Press.
  • Inglehart, Ronald 1997 Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Economic, and Political Change in 43 Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Inkeles, Alex, and David H. Smith 1974 Becoming Modern. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
  • Jaffee, David 1998 Levels of Socio-Economic Development Theory. Westport, Conn: Praeger.
  • Lerner, Daniel 1958 The Passing of Traditional Society: Modernizing the Middle East. New York: Free Press.
  • Levy, Marion, Jr. 1966 Modernization and the Structures of Societies, vol. 1. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • McClelland, David C. 1961 The Achieving Society. New York: Free Press.
  • McMichael, Philip 1996 Development and Social Change: A Global Perspective. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Pine Forge.
  • Moore, Barrington 1967 Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Boston: Beacon Press.
  • Nolan, Patrick, and Gerhard E. Lenski 1999 Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology, 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Parsons, Talcott 1951 The Social System. New York: Free Press.

 

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Source: http://edu.learnsoc.org. An Insight to Human Social Relations.

Table of Contents on the professional  Webpage for Sociology Students

Chapter One – Introduction   to Sociology

1.         What   is Sociology?

2.         What Sociology offers

3.         History of Sociology

4.         Sociology among the Social Sciences

5.         Sociologists in Society

6.         The Sociological Imagination

7.         Sociology as an Academic Discipline

8.         Sociology   Today (Sociology in a Changing World)

Chapter Two – Subdisciplines   of Sociology

1.         Subdisciplines of Sociology (Intro.)

2.         British Sociology

3.         German Sociology

4.         Indian Sociology

5.         Italian Sociology

6.         Japanese Sociology

7.         Polish and Eastern European Sociology

8.         Scandinavian Sociology

9.         Soviet and Post-Soviet Sociology

10.      Marxist Sociology

11.      Applied Sociology

12.      Clinical Sociology

13.      Economic Sociology

14.      Environmental Sociology

15.      Historical Sociology

16.      Industrial Sociology

17.      Macrosociology

18.      Mathematical Sociology

19.      Medical Sociology

20.      Military Sociology

21.      Political Sociology

22.      Rural Sociology

23.      Urban Sociology

24.      Social Philosophy

25.      Social Psychology

26.      Sociobiology, Human

27.      Sociocultural Anthropology

28.      Sociolinguistics

29.      Sociology of Education

30.      Sociology of Islam

31.      Sociology of Knowledge

32.      Sociology of Law

Chapter Three – Theories   of Sociology

1.         Theories of Sociology (Intro.)

2.         Conflict Theory

3.         Convergence Theories

4.         Critical Theory

5.         Dependency Theory

6.         Deviance Theories

7.         Diffusion Theories

8.         Feminist Theory

9.         Mate Selection Theories

10.      Metatheory

11.      Modernization Theory

12.      Rational Choice Theory

13.      Role Theory

14.      Social Exchange Theory

15.      Social Resources Theory

16.      Structural Functionalism

17.      Symbolic Interaction Theory

Chapter Four – Key   Concepts in Sociology

1.       Key Concepts   in Sociology (Intro.)

2.         Social Belonging

3.         Social Capital

4.         Social Change

5.         Social Control

6.         Social Dynamics

7.         Social Forecasting

8.         Social Indicators

9.         Socialization

10.      Social Justice

11.      Social Mobility

12.      Social Movements

13.      Social Networks

14.      Social Organization

15.      Social Perception

16.      Social Problems

17.      Social Security Systems

18.      Social Stratification

19.      Social Structure

20.      Social Values and Norms

21.      Social Work

Chapter Five – Major   Sociological Topics

1.         Major Sociological Topics (Intro.)

2.         Aging and the Life Course

3.         Class and Race

4.         Collective Behavior

5.         Community

6.         Culture

7.         Demography

8.         Deviance and Norms

9.         Discrimination

10.      Equality of Opportunity

11.      Ethnicity

12.      Family and Household Structure

13.      Gender

14.      Globaliization and Global Systems Analysis

15.      Groups

16.      Health and the Life Course

17.      Human Ecology and Environmental Analysis

18.      Human Nature

19.      Humanism

20.      Human Rights,   Children’s Rights, and Democracy

21.      Human Sexuality

22.      Kinship Systems and Family Types

23.      Marriage

24.      Population

25.      Post-modernism

26.      Poverty

27.      Race

28.      Socialization

29.      Social Problems

30.      Society

31.      Stratification

32.      Values and Norm

Chapter Six – Social   Problems

  1. Social        Problems (Introduction)
  2. Childhood        Sexual Abuse
  3. Discrimination
  4. Divorce
  5. Drug        Abuse
  6. Family        Violence
  7. Homelessness
  8. Pornography

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  1. Poverty
  2. Prejudice
  3. Sexual        Violence and Exploitation
  4. Slavery        and Involuntary Servitude
  5. Social        Inequality
  6. Suicide
  7. Terrorism
  8. War
  9. Widowhood
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Chapter Seven – Sociology   Research

  1. Sociology        Research (Intro)
  2. Decision        Making Theory and Research
  3. Disaster        Research
  4. Ethics        in Social Research
  5. Evaluation        Research
  6. Longitudinal        Research
  7. Mass        Media Research
  8. Participatory        Research
  9. Qualitative        Methods
  10. Qualitative        Models
  11. Quasi-Experimental        Research Design
  12. Research        Funding in Sociology
  13. Survey        Research
  14. Time        Use Research
  15. Values        Theory and Research

Chapter Eight – Society

1.         Society

2.         American Society

3.         Art and Society

4.         Information Society

5.         Law and Society

6.         Literature and Society

7.         Mass Society

8.         Postindustrial Society

9.         Societal Stratification

10.      Society and Technological Risks

Chapter Nine – Culture

1.         Culture

2.         Counter-cultures

3.         Alternative Lifestyles

4.         Criminal and Delinquent Subcultures

5.         Popular Culture

Chapter Ten – Deviant   Behavior

1.         Deviance   and Norms

2.         Deviance   Theories

3.         Criminalization   of Deviance

Chapter Eleven – Gender

1.         Gender

2.         Sex Differences

3.         Feminity/Masculinity

4.         Feminist Theory

Chapter Twelve – Family

1.         Family

2.         Family and Household Structure

3.         Kinship Systems and Family Types

4.         Family and   Population Policy in less-developed countries

5.         Family and Religion

6.         Family Law

7.         Family Planning

8.         Family policy in Western Societies

9.         Family Size

10.      Family Violence

Chapter Thirteen – Religion

1.         Religion

2.         Sociiology of Religion

3.         World Religions

4.         Religion, Politics, and War

5.         Religious Movements

6.         Religious Organizations

7.         Religious Orientations

Chapter Fourteen – Marriage

  1. Marriage
  2. Divorce
  3. Remarriage
  4. Intermarriage
  5. Mate        Selection Theories
  6. Marriage        and Divorce Rates
  7. Marital        Adjustment
  8. Sexual Behavior in Marriage        and Close Relationships

Chapter Fifteen – Politics

1.         Political Sociology

2.         Political and Governmental Corruption

3.         Political Correctness

4.         Political Crime

5.         Political Organizations

6.         Political Party Systems

Chapter Sixteen – Education

1.         Education

2.         Sociology of Education

3.         Education and Development

4.         Education and Mobility

5.         Educational Organization

Chapter Seventeen – Health   and Medicine

1.         Health and Medicine

2.         Medical Sociology

3.         Health and Illness Behavior

4.       MentalIllness   and Mental Disorders

5.         Health and the Life Course

6.         Health Care Utilization and Expenditures

7.         Health Policy Analysis

8.         Health Promotion and Health Status

9.       Me

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About Arab American Encyclopedia-USA - Hasan Yahya

HASAN YAHYA was born at a small village called Majdal-YaFa (Majdal Sadiq) in Mandate Palestine (1944). He migrated as a refugee to Mes-ha, a village east of Kufr Qasim, west of Nablus (in the West Bank), then moved with his family to Zarka, 25 km north of Amman – Jordan. He finished the high school at Zarka Secondary School, 1963. He was appointed as a teacher in the same year. Studied Law first at Damascus University, then B.A from Lebanon University in Arabic literature and Eastern Cultures (1975). He moved to Kuwait. Where he got married in 1967. He was working at Kuwait Television, taught at bilingual School, and Kuwait University. In 1982, Hasan left to the United States to continue his education at Michigan State University. He got the Master Degree in 1983, the Ph.D degree in 1988 in Education (Psychology of Administration ). In 1991, He obtained his post degree in Social research, the result was a second Ph.D degree in Comparative sociology-Social Psychology. He was the only Arab student who enrolled ever to pursue two simultaneous Ph.D programs from Michigan State University and fulfill their requirements perfectly. Professor Yahya employment history began as a supervisor of a joint project to rehabilitate Youth (inmates out of prison) by Michigan State University and Intermediate School Districts. Worked also as a Teacher Assistant and lecturer in the same university. He was offered a position at Lansing Community College as well as Jackson Community College where he was assistant professor, then associate professor, then full professor (1991-2006). He taught Sociology, psychology, education, criminology and research methods. He supervised 19 Master and Ph.D candidates on various personal, economic psychological and social development topics. Professor Yahya published Hundreds (1000 Plus on this site) of articles and research reports in local, regional, and international journals. His interest covers local, regional and global conflicts. He also authored, translated, edited and published over 280 plus books in several languages, in almost all fields especial education, sociology and psychology. These books can be found on Amazon and Kindle. He also, was a visiting professor at Eastern Michigan University to give Research Methods and Conflict Management courses. Prof. Yahya accepted an offer to join Zayed University Faculty Team in 1998, then he served as the Head of Education and Psychology Department at Ajman University of Science and Technology 2001-04. Dr. Yahya established several institutes in Diaspora, the Arab American Encyclopedia, Ihyaa al Turath al Arabi Project, (Revival of Arab Heritage in Diaspora.Recently he was nominated for honorary committee member for the Union of Arab and Muslim Writers in America. He was affiliated with sociological associations and was a member of the Association of Muslim Social Scientists (AMSS) at USA. Social Activities and Community Participation: Dr. Yahya was a national figure on Diversity and Islamic Issues in the United States, with special attention to Race Relations and Psychology of Assimilation (generations 1,2 &3). He was invited as a public speaker to many TV shows and interviews in many countries. His philosophy includes enhancing knowledge to appreciate the others, and to compromise with others in order to live peacefully with others. This philosophy was the backgrounds of his theory, called “ Theory C. of Conflict Management”. And developed later to a Science of Cultural Normalization under the title: “Crescentology. The results of such theory will lead to world peace depends on a global Knowledge, Understanding, appreciation, and Compromising (KUAC)” Recently Prof. Yahya started "Publish your book FREE Project", to serve young Arab Writers. Dr. Yahya accepted the offer to be the chief editor of the International Humanities Studies Journal -I-H-S-Jerusalem, since July 2014. (Revised Sept. 2014) ولد الدكتور حسن عبدالقادر يحيى في مجدل يابا من أعمال يافا – فلسطين عام 1944. تلقى علومه الابتدائية في مدرسة بديا الأميرية في الضفة الغربية أيام احتوائها ضمن المملكة الأدردنية الهاشمية وتخرج في جامعة بيروت حاملاً الإجازة في اللغة العربية وآدابها، ودبلوم التأهيل التربوي من كلية القديس يوسف بلبنان، ودبلوم الدراسات العليا (الماجستير) ودكتوراة في الإدارة التربوية من جامعة ولاية ميشيغان بالولايات المتحدة عام 1988، وشهادة الدكتوراه في علم الاجتماع المقارن من الجامعة نفسها عام 1991. عمل في التدريس والصحافة الأدبية. أديب وشاعر وقاص ، ,كما عمل في تلفزيون الكويت الرسمي كمعد ومنسق برامج ثم اتجه إلى الكتابة والتأليف في علوم كثيرة تخص علمي النفس والاجتماع والتنمية البشرية ، والتغير الاجتماعي والسكان وألف ونشر العديد من المقالات (1000 +) والكتب باللغتين العربية والإنجليزية (أكثر من 330 كتابا) ، منها ست مجموعات قصصية وست كتب للأطفال ، وأربع دواوين شعرية باللغتين أيضا. وعدد من كتب التراث في الشعر والأدب والأخلاق الإسلامية والتربية والأديان . وهو الآن أستاذ متقاعد في جامعة ولاية ميشيغان. . وكان عضوا سابقا في جمعية العلماء المسلمين في أمريكا . وجمعية علماء الاجتماع الأمريكية - ميشيغان، وهو مؤسس الموسوعة العربية الأمريكية في الولايات المتحدة ضمن مشروع إحياء التراث العربي في بلاد المهجرز كما تم ترشيحه مؤخرا ليكون عضو مجلس التحرير لمجلة الدراسات الإنسانية العالمية. وقد قبل أن يتسلم رئاسة تحريرها اعتبارا من نهاية يونيو 2014 His email: askdryahya@yahoo.com Thank you!
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