Control theory: A theory of cultural or self control as internal and external control of self and behavior.
Crime: an act of deviation from cultural norms.
Criminal Justice system: consists of three components: police, courts and prisons.
Deterrence: the attempt to discourage criminality through punishment.
Deviance: the recognized violation of cultural norms.
Halfway house: houses where inmates serve sentence before releasing them into the society.
Inner control: rise from inside the person as ethics, fear, punishment or rewards.
Outer control: control from outside the person, e. g., family, police, norms, fear of punishment.
Master status: a status that cut across the other statuses that an individual occupies.
Medicalization of deviance: the idea that deviance is an illness and should be cured accordingly.
Personality disorder: a situation of breakdown of mentally ill persons.
Primary deviance: a primary state of deviant behavior not described as deviance.
Positive sanction: rewards for accepted behaviors.
Secondary deviance: Edwin Lemert’s term for acts of deviance that become incorporated into the self-concept, around which an individual orients his or her behavior.
Recidivism rate: the proportion of people who are rearrested.
Rehabilitation: a program for reforming the offender to preclude subsequent offenses.
Resocialization: radically altering an inmate’s personality through deliberate manipulation of the environment.
Retribution: moral vengeance by which society inflicts suffering on an offender comparable to that caused by the offense.
Stigma: a powerful negative social label that radically changes a person’s self-concept and social identity, “blemishes” that discredit a person’s claim to “normal” identity.
Strain theory: Merton’s term for the strain engendered when a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal (such as success) but withholds from many the approved means to reach that goal; one adaptation to the strain is deviance, including crime, the choice of an innovative means (one outside the approved system) to attain the cultural goal.
Street crime: crimes such as mugging, rape, and burglary.
Tertiary deviance: “normalizing” behavior cons deviant by mainstream society; relabeling the behavior as non-deviant, even as good.
White-collar crime: Edwin Sutherland’s term for crimes committed by people of respectable and high social status in the course of their occupation.